hlola iLascaux, eFrance

Hlola iLascaux, eFrance

Hlola i-Lascaux, ukuhlelwa kwendawo yemihume eduzane nedolobhana laseMontignac, kuye UMnyango weDordogne eningizimu-ntshonalanga France. Imidwebo yodonga lwamapharaji we-600 ngaphezulu imboza izindonga ezingaphakathi nophahla lomhume. Imidwebo imelela ngokuyinhloko izilwane ezinkulu, iziloba ezijwayelekile zasendaweni nezanamuhla ezihambelana nerekhodi lokumba lesikhathi se-Upper Paleolithic. Imidwebo le yimizamo ehlanganisiwe yezizukulwane eziningi, futhi ngokuqhubeka kwengxoxo, ubudala bemidwebo bulinganiselwa eminyakeni eyi-17,000 (ekuqaleni kweMagdalenian). I-Lascaux yangeniswa ohlwini lwe-UNESCO World Heritage Sites ku-1979, njengengxenye ye Izindawo ezi-Prehistoric kanye nezinkamba ezihlotshisiwe zesigodi saseVézère.

NgoSepthemba 12, i-1940, ukungena eSibayeni sakwaLascaux kwatholakala nguMarcel Ravidat oneminyaka engu-18 ngesikhathi inja yakhe iwela emgodini.

Ukuhlanganiswa komhume kwavulelwa umphakathi ngoJulayi 14, 1948, futhi uphenyo lokuqala lokuvubukulwa kwaqala ngonyaka olandelayo, wagxila eShaft. Nge-1955, isikhutha, ukushisa, umswakama, nezinye izinto ezingcolisayo ezikhiqizwe izivakashi ze1,200 ngosuku zazonakalise imidwebo ngokusobala. Lapho isimo somoya siwohloka, isikhunta kanye ne-lichen kwangena ngokuya ezindongeni. Ngenxa yalokho, umhume wavalwa ngumphakathi e1963, imidwebo yabuyiselwa esimweni sawo sokuqala, kwaqalwa nohlelo lokuqapha nsuku zonke.

I-Lascaux II, ikhophi eliqondile le IHholo Elikhulu LamaBulls futhi Igalari Edwetshwe yaboniswa eGrand Palais phakathi Paris, ngaphambi kokuboniswa kusuka ku-1983 eduze komhume (cishe nge-200 m. kude nomhume wokuqala), ukuyekethisa nokuzama ukwethula umbono wesikali sopende nokwakheka komphakathi ngaphandle kokulimaza okwangempela. Uhla oluphelele lobuciko beparariyini beLascaux kwethulwa amakhilomitha ambalwa ukusuka endaweni lapho Isikhungo sobuciko be-prehistoric, Le Parc du Thot, lapho kukhona nezilwane eziphilayo ezimelela izilo ze-ice-age. Imidwebo yalesi siza yaphindwa ngohlobo olufanayo lwezinto ezenziwe nge-iron oxide, amalahle ne-ocher okukholakala ukuthi lalisetshenziswa i19 eminyakeni eyizinkulungwane edlule. Ezinye izinkomba zeLascaux nazo zikhiqizwe eminyakeni edlule; I-Lascaux III ingukuzala kabusha okuvela ukuthi i-2012 ivumele ukwabelana ngolwazi lwe-Lascaux emhlabeni jikelele. Ingxenye yomhume iphinde yenziwa kabusha ngesethi ehlukile yezithombe ezihlanu eziqondile zeNave neShaft futhi ikhonjiswe eminyuziyamu ehlukahlukene emhlabeni jikelele. I-Lascaux IV yikhophi entsha eyingxenye ye-International Center for Parietal Art (CIAP) futhi ehlanganisa ubuchwepheshe bedijithali esibukweni.

I-Ochroconis lascauxensis

Ngo-May 2018 I-Ochroconis lascauxensis, uhlobo lwesikhunta se-Ascomycota phylum, yachazwa ngokusemthethweni futhi yaqanjwa ngegama lendawo yokuqhamuka kwayo kokuqala nokuzimela, umhume waseLascaux. Lokhu kwalandelwa kusukela ekutholakaleni kwezinye izinhlobo ezihlobene kakhulu Ochroconis anomala, kuqala ukubonwa ngaphakathi komhume ku-2000. Ngonyaka olandelayo amabala amnyama aqala ukuvela phakathi kwemidwebo yomhume. Akukho simemezelo esisemthethweni mayelana nomphumela kanye / noma inqubekelaphambili yezindlela zokwelapha esezake zenziwa.

Ngokuya kwe-2008, umhume wawunobumba omnyama. NgoJanuwari 2008, iziphathimandla zavala umhume izinyanga ezintathu, ngisho nakososayensi nabezokulondolozwa kwemvelo. Umuntu oyedwa uvunyelwe ukungena emhumeni imizuzu ye-20 kanye ngeviki ukubheka isimo sezulu. Manje kuphela ochwepheshe abambalwa besayensi abavunyelwe ukusebenza ngaphakathi emhumeni futhi izinsuku ezimbalwa nje ngenyanga kodwa imizamo yokususa isikhunta ithathile usizi, ishiye imiphimbo emnyama futhi ilimaza nemibala ezindongeni. Ku-2009 kumenyezelwe: Inkinga yesikhunta "izinzile". Ku-2011 ukhunta ubukeka sengathi uzobuyela emuva ngemuva kokufakwa kohlelo olungeziwe, olwaluqine kakhulu lokonga.

Izinhlelo ezimbili zokucwaninga zifakwe kwi-CIAP maqondana nokuthi zelashwa kanjani kangcono, futhi umhume manje usunesistimu enamandla yezulu eyenzelwe ukunciphisa ukwethulwa kwamagciwane.

Ngokwesakhiwo sayo sedimentary, umgodi wamanzi waseVezere umboza ingxenye eyodwa yesine uMnyango laseDordogne, isifunda esisenyakatho neBlack Périgord. Ngaphambi kokujoyina iDordogne Rivernear uLimeuil, iVézère igeleza ngendlela eya eningizimu-ntshonalanga. Esifundeni saso, inkambo yalo mfula iphawuleka ngochungechunge lwamamango agudle amawa amakhulu aphezulu abeka imbonakalo yomhlaba. Ukhuphuka usuka kule mpumuzo egudle umgwaqo, eduze naseMontignac, kanye naseLascaux, izindawo zasemhlabeni zithambile kakhulu; phansi kwesigodi kuyanda, nemifudlana yomfula ilahlekile.

Isigodi saseLascaux sisebangeni elithile ukusuka ekujuleni okukhulu kwemihume ehlotshisiwe nezindawo ezakhiwe, iningi lazo ezitholwe ziqhubeka ziwela phansi. Ezindaweni ezisedolobhaneni lase-Eyzies-de-Tayac Sireuil, akukho ngaphansi kwemihume ne-37 emihumeni ehlotshisiwe, kanye nenani elikhulu kakhulu lezindawo zokuhlala ezivela ku-Upper Paleolithic, etholakala evulekile, ngaphansi kwendawo yokubhukelwa, noma emnyango wenye yezindawo zekarst zasendaweni. Lokhu okuhlushwa okuphezulu kakhulu entshonalanga Yurophu.

Umhume uqukethe amanani we-6,000 cishe, angahlukaniswa ngezigaba ezintathu eziyinhloko: izilwane, izibalo zabantu, nezimpawu ezingaqondakali. Imidwebo ayinazithombe zesimo esiseduze noma uhlaza lwesikhathi. Iningi lezithombe ezinkulu lidwetshwe ezindongeni kusetshenziswa imibala ebomvu, ephuzi, nemnyama kusuka ekuphindaphindweni okuyinkimbinkimbi kwezimbiwa zamaminerali kufaka phakathi i-iron compounds enjenge-iron oxide (i-ocher), i-hematite, ne-goethite, kanye nemibala equkethe imanganese. Amalahle nawo kungenzeka ukuthi ayesetshenziswa kepha kubukeka sengathi awasasebenzi. Kwezinye izindonga zomhume, umbala kungenzeka ukuthi wawusetshenziswa njengokumiswa kombala emafutheni ezilwane noma emfuleni ocebile we-calcium noma ngaphansi komhlaba, wenza upende olwabanjiswa noma lwaluvaliwe, kunokuba lufakwe ngebhulashi. Kwezinye izindawo, umbala wawusetshenziswa ngokufafaza imibala ngokushaya ingxube nge-tube. Lapho indawo yedwala ithambile khona, kuye kwenziwa eminye imiklamo kuleli tshe. Izithombe eziningi zihluleka kakhulu ukuqonda, kanti ezinye ziye zonakala ngokuphelele.

Ngaphezulu kwe-900 kungakhonjwa njengezilwane, kanti i-605 yalokhu ikhonjwe kahle. Kulezi zithombe, kunemidwebo ye-364 yama-etoyini kanye nemidwebo ye-90 yamatshe. Kubuye kuvezwe izinkomo kanye nenyathi, ngayinye imele i-4 kuya ku-5% yezithombe. Ukushaywa kwezinye izithombe kufaka amakhethini ayisikhombisa, inyoni, ibhere, obhejane, nomuntu. Azikho izithombe zokuhluma, yize lowo bekungumthombo ophambili wokudla kwabaculi. Izithombe zejometri zitholakele nasezindongeni.

Isigaba esidume kakhulu somhume yi-Hall of the Bulls lapho kukhonjiswa khona izinkunzi, izinkomba, nezindluzele. Izinkunzi ezine ezimnyama, noma ama-aurochs, ziyizibalo ezivelele phakathi kwezilwane ze-36 ezimelelwe lapha. Enye yezinkunzi ingamamitha angama-5.2 ubude, isilwane esikhulu kunazo zonke esatholakala kude kangako kubuciko bomhume. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izinkabi kubukeka sengathi ziyahamba.

Umdwebo obizwa nge- “The Crossed Bison”, otholakala egumbini elibizwa ngokuthi i-Nave, uvame ukufakwa njengesibonelo sekhono labadwebi bomhume basePaleolithic. Imilenze yangemuva eledlule idala inkohliso yokuthi elinye inyathi isondele kakhulu kumbukeli kunenye. Lokhu kujula okubukwayo endaweni yesehlakalo kukhombisa indlela yokubuka yokuqala eyayithuthukiswe ikakhulukazi isikhathi.

Ukuhunyushwa

Ukuhunyushwa kwe-Paleolithic Art kuyingozi kakhulu, futhi kuthonywa ukucwaswa nezinkolelo zethu njengedatha yangempela. Ezinye izazi zezomlando kanye nezazi-mlando zobuciko zithi imidwebo ingaba i-akhawunti yempumelelo yokuzingela edlule, noma ingamele isiko eliyimfihlakalo ukuze kuthuthukiswe imizamo yokuzingela esikhathini esizayo. Umcabango wokugcina usekelwa izithombe ezigqagqene zeqembu elilodwa lezilwane endaweni efanayo yomhume njengelinye iqembu lezilwane, ziphakamisa ukuthi enye indawo yomhume iphumelele ngokwengeziwe ukubikezela uhambo oluningi lokuzingela.

Kusetshenziswa indlela yokuhlaziya ye-iconographic kwimidwebo ye-Lascaux (isikhundla sokufunda, ukuqondiswa nosayizi wezibalo; inhlangano yokuqanjwa, inqubo yokudweba; ukusatshalaliswa kwezinhlelo zemibala; ucwaningo lwesikhungo sezithombe), uThérèse Guiot-Houdart uzame ukuqonda Umsebenzi ongokomfanekiso wezilwane, ukukhomba ingqikithi yesithombe ngasinye bese ekugcineni wakhe kabusha ukhonkolo lwensumansumane ekhonjiswe ezindongeni zamadwala.

UJulien d'Huy noJean-Loïc Le Quellec bakhombisile ukuthi ezinye zezimpawu ze-Lascaux ezingabonakali noma ezivinjelwe igazi zingahlaziywa ngokuthi "isikhali" noma "amanxeba". Lezi zibonakaliso zithinta izilwane eziyingozi — amakati amakhulu, ama-auroch ne-bison — ngaphezu kwezinye futhi zingachazwa ngokwesaba ukugqwayiza kwesithombe. Okunye okutholakele kusekela i-hypothesis yezithombe ezinempilo. E-Lascaux, inyathi, ama-aurochs ne-ibex azimelwe eceleni. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, umuntu angabona uhlelo lwe-bison-amahhashi-amabhubesi nohlelo lwama-aurochs-horse-deer-bear, lezi zilwane zihlanganiswa kaningi. Ukusatshalaliswa okunjalo kungakhombisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwezinhlobo ezifanekiselwe nezimo zazo zemvelo. Ama-Aurochs ne-bison alwa nomunye, kanti amahhashi kanye nezinyamazane kuhlalisana kakhulu nezinye izilwane. Inyathi namabhubesi kuhlala ezindaweni ezivulekile zamathafa; ama-aurochs, inyamazane kanye namabhere kuhlotshaniswa namahlathi nemishayo; Indawo yokuhlala ye-ibex yizindawo ezinamadwala, futhi amahhashi avumelana kakhulu nazo zonke lezi zindawo. Isimo sokudwetshwa kwemidwebo yeLascaux singachazwa ngokukholelwa empilweni yangempela yezinhlobo ezithombeni, lapho abaculi bezame ukuhlonipha isimo sabo sangempela semvelo.

Okungaziwa yindawo yesithombe ebizwa ngokuthi i Ngaphandle (Apse), igumbi elizungezayo, elinezinhlaka ezinjenge-apse endaweni yaseRomaesque. Kucishe kube ngamamitha ayi-4.5 ububanzi futhi embozwe kuwo wonke umhlaba odongeni (kufaka phakathi uphahla) ngezinkulungwane zemidwebo eboshelwe, edlulayo, neyidwetshiwe. Uphahla lwe-Apse, olusukela kumamitha ayi-1.6 ukuya kuma-2.7 ukuphakama njengoba lilinganiswa ukusuka ekuphakameni kwepansi lasekuqaleni, luhlotshiswe ngokuphelele ngemidwebo yokuthi lukhombisa ukuthi abantu be-prehistoric abababulala baqale bakha isudi ukwenza lokho.

Ngokusho kukaDavid Lewis-Williams noJean Clottes bobabili abafundela ubuciko obufana nabantu baseSan of Southern Africa, lolu hlobo lobuciko lungokomoya ngokwemvelo oluphathelene nemibono eyenzeka ngesikhathi sokudanisa inkambiso. Le mibono ye-trance ingumsebenzi wobuchopho bomuntu futhi ngakho-ke azimele yendawo. UNigel Spivey, uprofesa wezobuciko bezinto zakudala kanye nokwenziwa kwezinto zakudala eYunivesithi yaseCambridge, uphinde waveza uchungechunge lwakhe, Uwenziwe Kanjani Umhlaba, lawo machaphaza wamachashazi namathenisi agqagqene nezithombe eziyizilwane zifana kakhulu nokukhishwa inyumbazane ngenxa yokuncipha kwenzwa. Ubuye futhi achaze ukuthi ukuxhumana phakathi kwezilwane ezibalulekile ngokwamasiko nalezi zinto ezibucayi kwaholela ekwakhiweni kokwenza izithombe, noma ubuciko bokudweba.

U-Leroi-Gourhan wafunda umhume kusukela kuma-60's, ukubona kwakhe ukuhlangana kwezilwane kanye nokusatshalaliswa kwezinhlobo zezilwane ngaphakathi komhume kwaholela ekutheni aqhamuke nombono we-Structuralist owabeka ukuba khona kwenhlangano yangempela yesikhala semifanekiso ezindaweni ezihlala ePalaeolithic. Le modeli isuselwa ebuntwaneni / kowesifazane wesitho sangasese - okungabhekelwa kakhulu kubhungathi / ihhashi kanye nama-aurochs / ngamabili amahhashi - kuyabonakala kuzo zombili lezi zibonakaliso kanye nezethulo zezilwane. Ubuye wachaza ukuvela okuqhubekayo ngokusebenzisa izitayela ezine ezilandelanayo, kusuka e-Aurignacian kuya kuLate Magdalenian. U-André Leroi-Gourhan akazange akushicilele ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe kwezibalo zomhume. Emsebenzini wakhe uPréhistoire de l'art occidental, oshicilelwe e1965, nokho wafaka ukuhlaziywa kwezimpawu ezithile wasebenzisa imodeli yakhe echazayo ekuqondeni eminye imihume ehlotshisiwe

Ukuvulwa kwe-Lascaux Cave ngemuva kweMpi Yezwe II kwashintsha imvelo yomhume. Ukuphefumula kwabavakashi be-1,200 ngosuku, ukuba khona kokukhanya, nezinguquko zokujikeleza komoya kudale izinkinga eziningi. Amalayisense namakristalu kwaqala ukubonakala ezindongeni ngasekupheleni kwe-1950, okuholele ekuvaleni kwemigedeni e1963. Lokhu kuholele ekuvinjelweni kokufinyelela emihumeni yangempela kubavakashi abambalwa njalo ngeviki, kanye nokwakhiwa komhume wokuphindisela izivakashi zaseLascaux. E-2001, iziphathimandla ezaziphethe iLascaux zashintsha uhlelo lokupholisa umoya okwaholela ekutheni kulawulwe amazinga okushisa nomswakama. Ngenkathi uhlelo selusunguliwe, kwagcwala i-infestation ye Fusarium solani, isikhunta esimhlophe, saqala ukusabalala ngokushesha ophahleni lomhume nasemodongeni. Isikhunta kubhekwe ukuthi besikhona enhlabathini yomhume futhi sivezwa umsebenzi wabathengisi, okuholele ekusakazekeni kwesikhunta esasiphathwa ngokushesha. Ku-2007, isikhunta esisha, esidale iziphofu ezimpunga nezimnyama, saqala ukusabalala emhumeni wangempela.

Ihlelwe ngokusungulwa koMnyango Wezamasiko WaseFrance, kwenziwa uchungechunge lomhlaba jikelele olunesihloko esithi “Lascaux and Preservation Issices in Subterrwandle Environments” Paris ngoFebhuwari 26 ne-27, 2009, ngaphansi kosihlalo kaJean Clottes. Kuqoqe ndawonye cishe abahlanganyeli abangamakhulu amathathu abavela emazweni ayishumi nesikhombisa ngenhloso yokubhekana nocwaningo nokungenelela okwenziwe eLascaux Cave kusukela i-2001 nakho okutholakale kwamanye amazwe esizindeni sokulondolozwa ezindaweni ezingaphansi komhlaba. Ukuqhutshwa kwalolu chungechunge kushicilelwe kwi2011. Ochwepheshe abangamashumi ayisikhombisa nane emikhakheni ehlukahlukene njenge-biology, i-biochemistry, i-botany, i-hydrology, i-Climatology, i-geology, i-fluid mechanics, i-archaeology, i-anthropology, ukuvuselela kanye nokonga, okuvela emazweni amaningi (France, E-United States, ePortugal, Spain, Japan, nabanye) bafake isandla kulolu shicilelo.

Inkinga iyaqhubeka, kanye nemizamo yokulawula ukukhula kwamagciwane kanye nesikhunta emhumeni. Izinkinga zokutheleleka ngefungal ziholele ekusungulweni kweKomidi Lesayensi Lezizwe Zonke leLascaux futhi licabange kabusha ukuthi, futhi kungakanani, ukufinyelela komuntu kufanele kuvunyelwe emihumeni equkethe ubuciko bokuqala.

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Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]