hlola eLyon, eFrance

Hlola eLyon, eFrance

Hlola iLyon futhi ebhalwe iLyons ngesiNgisi, kungumuzi wesithathu ngobukhulu kulo France nesizinda sendawo yesibili enkulu yedolobha ezweni. Yidolobha elikhulu lesifunda saseRhone-Alpes kanye neRhône uMnyango. Yaziwa njengedolobha lokudla okuhle nokuphila komlando onendawo enhle yesiko. Futhi kuyindawo yokuzalwa kwe-cinema.

Hlola iLyon, idolobha elasungulwa amaRoma, enezindawo eziningi zomlando ezigciniwe, iLyon iyisizinda sedolobha lamagugu, njengoba kuqashelwa yi-UNESCO. ILyon iyidolobha elikhulu elivumayo elenza ukuthi liphume kahle kakhulu kumagugu alo obuciko bokwakha, amasiko kanye nokudla, indawo ehlala kuyo enamandla omnotho nomnotho nendawo yayo ephakathi kweNyakatho neNingizimu Yurophu. Kuvuleke umhlaba wonke, nesibalo esandayo sabafundi nemicimbi yaphesheya.

Idolobha ngokwalo linabahlali abacishe babe yi480,000. Kodwa-ke, ithonya eliqondile lomuzi lidlulela kahle ngaphezu kwemingcele yalo yokuphatha, nesibalo sabantu baseGreater Lyon (okubandakanya amadolobha we-57 noma ezivamile): cishe i-2.1 million. ILyon nendawo yayo yedolobha elikhulu ikhula ngokushesha futhi iba yintsha, ngenxa yokuheha umnotho wabo.

Zonke izinkathi zomlando we-XonUMX weminyaka kaLyon ishiye iminonjana ebonakalayo kumagama wokwakha namasiko wedolobha, kusuka kumanxiwa aseRoma aya ezigodlweni zaseRenaissance kuya ezikhungweni zasesikhathini zanamuhla. Akukaze kudlule enhlekeleleni enkulu (ukuzamazama komhlaba, umlilo, ukuqhuma kwamabhomu amaningi) noma ukuhlelwa kabusha ngokuphelele kwabahleli basemadolobheni. Ambalwa amadolobha emhlabeni aqhakambisa ukwahlukahluka okunjalo ekwakhiweni kwawo emadolobheni nasezakhiwo zawo.

Ukulandelwa kokuqala kokufika kwemali emuva ku-12,000 BC kepha abukho ubufakazi bokuhlala okuqhubekayo ngaphambi kwenkathi yamaRoma. ILugdunum, igama lamaRoma lomuzi, lasungulwa ngokusemthethweni e-43 BC nguLucius Munatius Plancus, owayenguRhuluneli waseGaul ngaleso sikhathi. Imizi yokuqala yamaRoma yayisegqumeni laseNevière, futhi izakhamizi zokuqala mhlawumbe zazingamabutho empi kaKhesari yokulwa. Ukuthuthukiswa komuzi kukhuliswe indawo okuyiyo futhi kwaqhakanjiswa iDolobha laseGauls e27 BC nguGeneral Agrippa, umkhwenyana ka-Emperor Augustus kanye nongqongqoshe. Kwakhiwa imithwalo emikhulu yezimoto ezinkulu, okunikeza ukufinyelela okulula kuzo zonke izingxenye zeGaul. ILugdunum yaba ngesinye sezikhungo ezivelele kakhulu kwezokuphatha, ezomnotho nezezimali eGaul, kanye neNarbonne. Isikhathi esikhulu sokuthula nokuchuma komuzi waseRoma kwakuphakathi kwe69 ne192 AD. Inani labantu ngaleso sikhathi lilinganiselwa phakathi kwe-50,000 ne-80,000. ILugdunum yayinezindawo ezine ezinabantu abaningi: esiqongweni sentaba i-Fourvière, emithambekeni yeCroix-Rousse ezungeze i-Amphithéâtre des Trois Gaules, ICanabae (ezungeze indawo okukhona kuyo indawo i-Bellecour namuhla) kanye nebhange elifanele lomfula iSaône, ikakhulukazi kulokho namuhla okuyindawo yase St George.

Imicimbi Umkhosi wezibani (Fête des Lumières) Wumcimbi obaluleke kunazo zonke onyakeni. Kuhlala izinsuku ezine ezizungeze i-8th kaDisemba. Kuqala bekungumkhosi wezenkolo wendabuko: ngoDisemba 8th, 1852, abantu baseLyon bakhanyisa amafasitela abo ngamakhandlela ukugubha ukumenyezelwa kwesithombe segolide seNkosazana enguMariya (iNcasakazi ebeyiyisikhulu esingcwele sikaLyon njengoba kusolwa ukuthi wasindisa idolobha eliqhamuka enhluphekweni e1643). Isiko elifanayo laliphindwa njalo ngonyaka.
Eminyakeni eyishumi edlule, lo mgubho waba ngumcimbi waphesheya, kwaba nemibukiso ekhanyayo ngabadwebi abaqeqeshiwe abavela kuwo wonke umhlaba. Lezo zinto zisukela ekufakweni okuncane ezindaweni ezicezile kuya kwimibukiso emikhulu yezwi nokukhanya, okukhulu kunakho konke ngokwesiko okwenzeka ePeet des Terreaux. Umgubho wendabuko uhlala, kepha: emavikini adlule ngoDisemba 8th, amakhandlela ezendabuko nezibuko zithengiswa ezitolo kulo lonke idolobha. Lo mkhosi uheha izivakashi ezizungeze izigidi ze-4 minyaka yonke; manje iqhathanisa, ngokuya kwabakhona, ne-Oktoberfest in Munich Ngokwesibonelo. Akunakusho ukuthi, indawo yalesi sikhathi kufanele ibhukelwe izinyanga ngaphambi kwesikhathi. Uzodinga nezicathulo ezinhle (ukugwema isixuku metro) nezingubo ezifudumele kakhulu (zingabanda kakhulu ngalesi sikhathi sonyaka).

Isikhungo sedolobha asisikhulu kangako futhi izinto eziningi ezikhangayo zingafinyelelwa kusuka komunye nomunye ngezinyawo. Ukuhamba ukusuka endaweni des Terreaux ukuya ku-Place Bellecour, ngokwesibonelo, kumayelana ne-20 min. Umthetho wesithupha ngukuthi iziteshi zikaMetro ngokuvamile zingamaminithi we-10 ahamba ahlukane.

ILyon kungenzeka ukuthi ayinazindawo zesikhumbuzo ezaziwa umhlaba wonke njenge-Eiffel tower noma i-Statue of Liberty, kepha inikeza izindawo ezahlukahlukene ezihlakazekile ezihamba ngezinyawo futhi zifihle izimangaliso zokwakha. Njengoba isikhathi sihamba, idolobha liphinde lamukeleka ngokwengeziwe kubahamba ngezinyawo nabahamba ngamabhayisekili. Ngakho-ke indlela enhle yokuyihlola kungenzeka ukuthi ulahlekelwe kwenye indawo futhi ujabulele okuzayo, futhi hhayi ukulandela njalo inkombandlela ...

Iphuzu elihle kubavakashi ukuthi iningi elikhangayo ngeke likubize isenti: amasonto, ama-traboules, amapaki, njll.

The zabuna:

  • Ukubuka okuvela ku-Fourvière basilica, kanye ne-basilica uqobo.
  • Imikhosi kanye nama-traboules eVieux Lyon, eSt Jean Cathedral.
  • AmaTraboules eCroix-Rousse.
  • Musées Gadagne.
  • I-Parc de la Tête d'Or.

Endleleni eshayiwe:

  • UMusée urbain uTony Garnier nomakhelwane we-Etats-Unis.
  • Isonto iSt Irénée, iMontée du Gourguillon, umakhelwane weSt Georges.
  • Isiphuzo on Indawo Sathonay.
  • Isonto le-St Bruno.
  • I-Parc de Gerland.
  • Umakhelwane eGreyte-ciel eVilleurbanne.

I-Vieux Lyon

I-Old Lyon iyimichilo emincane eceleni kwebhange laseSaône, nendawo enkulu yeRenaissance. Inhlangano yayo yamanje, enemigwaqo emincane evame ukufana nomfula, iqala emuva kuma-Ages aphakathi. Lezi zakhiwo zakhiwa phakathi kwe-15th ne-17th century, okuphawuleka ngabathengisi base-Italy abacebile, abakwaFlemish nabaseJalimane ababehlala eLyon lapho kwaqhutshwa khona am Fairs amane unyaka nonyaka. Ngaleso sikhathi, izakhiwo zaseLyon kwathiwa zaziphakeme kakhulu eYurophu. Le ndawo ihlaziywe ngokuphelele kuma-1980 kanye nama-1990. Manje inikeza izivakashi imibala emibalabala, emincane cobblestone; kunezitolo ezithile zezingcweti ezithokozisayo kodwa futhi nezingibe eziningi zezivakashi.

Ihlukaniswe izingxenye ezintathu eziqanjwe ngamasonto abo;

  • ISt Paul, enyakatho yendawo du Change, kwakuyindawo yezohwebo ngesikhathi seRenaissance;
  • ISt Jean, phakathi kwendawo du Change neSt Jean, yayiyikhaya lemindeni ecebile kakhulu: ama-aristocrat, izikhulu zikahulumeni, njll;
  • ISt Georges, eningizimu yeSt Jean, yayiyisifunda sezingcweti.

Indawo le ihlala igcwele ntambama, ikakhulukazi ngezimpelasonto. Ukuze ujabulele ubuhle bayo bokwakha bokwakha, isikhathi esihle kakhulu ngakusasa. Ngesikhathi sokudla kwasemini, imigwaqo ethile inyamalala ngemuva kwezindawo zokudlela, ama-postcard racks nesixuku sabavakashi.

Ukuvakasha okuqondisiwe ngezilimi eziningana, kufaka phakathi nesiNgisi, kuyatholakala kusuka ehhovisi lezivakashi.

  • ISt Jean Cathedral,
  • Ingadi yase-St Jean yemivubukulo
  • Ama-Traboules,
  • Amagceke weRenaissance
  • URue St Jean
  • Rue du Boeuf
  • Indawo du Shintsha
  • Rue Juiverie
  • Isonto iSt Paul
  • ISt Georges makhelwane
  • I-Montée du Gourguillon,
  • I-Palais de Justice

I-Fourvière, uSanta-Just

Thatha umngcwabo onqenqemeni wegquma kusuka esiteshini sikaMasipala i-Vieux Lyon, noma ulungile, khuphuka iMontée des Chazeaux (eqala ngaseningizimu kweRue du Boeuf), Montée St Barthélémy (osuka esiteshini saseSt Paul) noma eMontée du Gourguillon ukuphela kwasenyakatho kweRue St Georges, ngemuva kwesiteshi sikaMasipala iVieux Lyon). Lokhu kukhuphuka okumi ngezinyawo kwe-150 m (500 ft) cishe.

I-ezinevière kwakuyindawo yasekuqaleni kweRoman Lugdunum. Ngekhulu le-19th, laba yisikhungo senkolo sedolobha, kanye ne-Basilica kanye namahhovisi kaMbhishobhi Omkhulu.

  • I-Basilica ye-Notre-Dame de Fourvière
  • Umbono wephaneli
  • I-Metal tower
  • Izinkundla zemidlalo zaseRoma
  • USanta-Just
  • Isonto iSt Irénée

Isi-Croix-Rousse

Le ndawo, ikakhulukazi ama-traboules, angakufanelekela ukuthatha uhambo oluqondisiwe (olutholakala ehhovisi lezivakashi).

ICroix-Rousse yaziwa ngokuthi “igquma elisebenzayo” kodwa kwaphela amakhulu eminyaka, ibiyintaba “yokuthandaza” njengeFourvière. Emthambekeni kwakuneSanhedrini YaseRoma Federal of the Ga Ga Eithathu, eyayihlanganisa inkundla yezemidlalo ne-altare. Le ndawo engcwele yashiywa ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-2nd. NgeNkathi Ephakathi, igquma, ngaleso sikhathi elalibizwa ngokuthi iMontagne St Sébastien, belingeyona ingxenye yedolobha elikhululekile laseLyon kodwa lesifundazwe saseFranc-Lyonnais, esasizimele futhi sivikelekile yiNkosi. Imithambeka yabe isinikezelwa kwezolimo, ikakhulukazi izivini. E-1512, kwakhiwa udonga olubiyelwe ngenhla kwesiqongo sentaba, cishe lapho iBoulevard de la Croix-Rousse ikhona namuhla. The amapentshisi (imithambeka) nethafa ehlukanisiwe. Imithambeka yabe iyingxenye yeLyon ngenkathi ithafa elingaphandle kwemingcele yedolobha. Kuze kufike emabandleni enkolo ayishumi nantathu ahlala emthambekeni futhi athola izingxenyana ezinkulu zomhlaba. Izimpahla zabo zabanjwa futhi izakhiwo eziningi zacekelwa phansi ngesikhathi seFrance Revolution.

ICroix-Rousse yaziwa njengendawo eyinhloko yokukhiqiza usilika, kepha imboni ayizange ibekhona egqumeni kuze kube sekupheleni kwekhulu le-19th kanye nokwethula kobuchwepheshe obusha bokubopha; ngaleso sikhathi, usilika wawusukhiqizwe eLyon iminyaka engaphezu kwe-250.

  • I-Amphithéâtre des Trois Gaules
  • Montée de la Grande Côte
  • I-Croix-Rousse traboules
  • UMur des Canuts
  • Isonto le-St Bruno
  • UJardin Rosa Mir

Kubantu baseLyon, iPrequ'île yindawo yokuthenga, yokudlela noma ye-Clubling. Iphinde futhi iveze ingxenye enkulu yomsebenzi wezomnotho wedolobha.

Le peninsula emincane phakathi kwemifula iRhône neSaône yayakhiwe kakhulu ngumuntu. Lapho izakhamuzi zokuqala zihlala kulokho okwakubizwa ngokuthi ngaleso sikhathi ICanabae, umngcele womfula wawakhiwe eduze nesayithi lamanje leSt Martin d'Ainay basilica. ENingizimu yaleli phuzu kwakuyisiqhingi. Ukusuka ku-1772, imisebenzi ye-titanic eholwa ngunjiniyela u-Antoine-Michel Perrache iphinde yahlanganisa isiqhingi ezwenikazi. Izibhuku ezazikhona lapho zase zomile, ezazivumela ukwakhiwa kwesiteshi i-Perrache, kwavulwa nge-1846. I-Northern Presqu'île yavuselelwa kakhulu i-1848; okuwukuphela kwengxenye esele ye-Renaissance ekuzungeze i-rue Mercière.

  • Beka i-des Terreaux
  • City Hall
  • Indlu ye-Opera
  • UMur des Lyonnais
  • Beka i-Sathonay
  • Isonto le-St Nizier
  • Rue Mercière
  • Beka des Jacobins
  • Hotel-Dieu
  • I-Théâtre des CélestinsPlace Bellecour
  • Basilique St Martin d'Ainay

Ukukholisa

Indawo eseningizimu yePerrache isuka endaweni enezimboni eziningi iye kwenye yezindawo ezithakazelisa kakhulu edolobheni. Enye yezinhlelo ezinkulu kakhulu zentuthuko eYurophu yaqala ukusebenza eminyakeni embalwa edlule ngokwakhiwa komugqa omusha wethilamu kanye nokuvulwa kwesikhungo sezamasiko (La Sucrière). Uhlangothi lwasentshonalanga lwendawo manje lunezakhiwo eziningi ezintsha, eziningi zazo eziyizingcezu ezithokozisayo zobuciko bokwakhiwa kwesimanje. Indlunkulu entsha kahulumeni wesifunda saseRhône-Alpes ingeniswe eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule, futhi kwavulwa indawo entsha yezitolo kusukela nge2012. Isigaba esisha sephrojekthi sesizoqala ngokudilizwa imakethe enkulu yangaphambili ethengiswayo. Futhi, kusukela ku-2015, kuvulwe i-Musée des Confluences entsha; inesakhiwo esinjengomkhumbi esinjengomkhumbi kakhulu konke kwengilazi nensimbi, futhi ukuvezwa kwayo okuyinhloko kumayelana nokuvela kokuphila emhlabeni.

Noma ngabe ngaphandle kwenxanxathela yezitolo nomnyuziyamu azikho izinto eziningi ezikhangayo, kuyathakazelisa ukuthatha uhambo lokuhamba ngezinyawo noma ukugibela ibhayisekili lapho ukubona ukuthi iLyon ingaqhubeka ivela kanjani ngemuva kweminyaka engu-2000.

Ezinye izindawo

  • ICité Internationale
  • Umakhelwane we-Etats-Unis
  • Ile Barbe
  • I-Gratte-Ciel
  • Iminyuziyamu kanye Namagalari
  • I-Palais Saint-Pierre / Musée des Beaux Ubuciko
  • Ama-Musée Des Confidence
  • I-Institut Lumière - Musée vivant du Cinéma
  • I-Musées Gadagne: Imnyuziyamu yomlando weLyon kanye nomnyuziyamu wezimbungulu zomhlaba
  • Musée urbain Tony Garnier
  • Isikhungo d'Histoire de la Résistance et de la Déportation
  • I-Musée des Arts Décoratifs / Musée des Tissus
  • Musée gallo-romain de Fourvière
  • Musée de la Miniature et des Décors de cinema
  • Musée des Hospices izakhamizi zaseLyon
  • Musée de l'Imprimerie

Amapaki Nezingadi

  • I-Parc de la Tête d'Or
  • Amabhange aseRhône
  • I-Parc de Gerland
  • I-Parc des Hauteurs
  • UJardin des Curiosités

Imicimbi yamasiko ihlelwe ngamagazini amabili asonto onke: I-Le Petit Bulletin (mahhala, kuyatholakala kuma-cinema, yaseshashalazini, imigoqo ethile, njll. kanye naku-inthanethi) futhi ILyon Poche (kusuka okusha noma ku-inthanethi). Kukhona nemephu entsha yaseLyon ebizwa ngokuthi yi- “La Ville Nue” ebala amabala, izinkundla zemidlalo, imitapo yolwazi, amasinema, izitolo zomculo namakhonsathi.

Ukubhuka kusenesikhathi kuvame ukudingeka ezikhungweni ezinkulu (Auditorium, opera house, Célestins naseCroix-Rousse yeshashalazi). Amagama amakhulu athengisa izinyanga ngaphambi kwesikhathi. Ngokungafani London or I-New York, ayikho indawo eLyon lapho ungathenga khona amathikithi entengo ancishisiwe wemibukiso yosuku olufanayo.

Umculo, ukudansa ne-opera

  • I-Auditorium,
  • Indlu ye-Opera
  • I-Transbordeur
  • UNinkasi
  • UMaison de la Danse

ILyon inenqwaba yemidlalo yeshashalazi esukela “kumakhofi amancane” kuya kwizikhungo ezinkulu zikamasipala. Ungajabulela noma yiluphi uhlobo lombukiso kusuka kumdlalo wamahlaya uye kumdlalo wasendulo kuya kumikhiqizo yama-avant-garde.

  • Célestins Theatre
  • I-Théâtre de la Croix-Rousse
  • kwesivumelwano se-NPT
  • Théâtre Tête d'Or
  • Théâtre le Guignol de Lyon
  • I-Véritable Guignol du Vieux Lyon et du Parc

Amahora ajwayelekile wokuthenga kwedolobha yi10AM-7PM, ngoMsombuluko kuze kube uMgqibelo. Ezinye izindawo ezinkulu zivala kancane emuva kwesikhathi (7: 30PM). Izitolo zivaliwe ngamaSonto, ngaphandle kukaDisemba kanye naseVieux Lyon lapho ngeSonto kuwusuku olukhulu kakhulu lwesonto!

  • La Part-Dieu
  • I-Rue de la République
  • Rue du Président Edouard Herriot, rue Gasparin, rue Emile Zola, rue des Archers, rue du Pl
  • URue Victor Hugo
  • URue Auguste Comte
  • Carré de Soie

Izindawo zokudlela zibonisa amamenyu wazo ngamanani akhonjiswe ngaphandle. Njengakuyo yonke indawo ku France, amanani ahlala afaka insiza, isinkwa namanzi ompompi (cela a ukhokho wamanzi). Ukuthola izeluleko akuvamile futhi kulindelwe kuphela uma wanelisekile ikakhulukazi ngomsebenzi.

Izikhathi zokudla ngokuvamile i-12PM-2PM yesidlo sasemini kanye ne-7: 30PM-10PM Izindawo ezinikeza insiza yezinsuku zonke zitholakala ezindaweni zabavakashi, futhi akunakwenzeka ukuthi zinikeze ukudla okusha okukhwalithi. Insizakalo yokufika ebusuku ayivelakancane ezindaweni zokudlela ezisezingeni, kepha ungakuthola njalo ukudla okujwayelekile okusheshayo noma i-kebab.

Izindawo zokudlela zendabuko zaseLyon zibizwa Imigudu; umsuka wegama awucacile (ngokwezwi nezwi lisho "ukhokho"). Bavele ngasekupheleni kwekhulu le-19th futhi bachuma kuma-1930s, lapho isimo somnotho siphoqa imindeni ecebile ukuba ibase umlilo abapheki bayo, ababezivulela izindawo zabo zokudlela zabathengi ababesebenza. Abesifazane laba kuthiwa omama (omama); owayedume kunabo bonke, u-Eugénie Brazier, waba ngomunye wabapheki bokuqala ukunikezwa izinkanyezi ezintathu (isikhundla esiphakeme kunazo zonke) ngumhlahlandlela odumile we-Michelin gastronomic. Ubuye waba nomfundi osemncane obizwa ngokuthi uPaul Bocuse. Ukudla kokuhle plug impela kumele wenze. Bapheka izitsha ezijwayelekile zasendaweni:

  • i-salade lyonnaise (isaladi le-Lyon): isaladi eluhlaza enama-bacon cubes, ama-croutons neqanda elibekiwe;
  • isosi se-saucisson: isosi esishisayo nesibilisiwe; ingaphekwa ngewayini elibomvu (i-saucisson beaujolais) noma ku-bun (i-saucisson brioché);
  • I-quenelle de brochet: ukulahlwa okwenziwe ngofulawa neqanda ngenhlanzi yama-pike nesoso se-crayfish (isifutho seNantua);
  • i-tablier de sapeur: ama-safari asolwandle ahlanganiswa nama-breadcrumbs abese ethosiwe, ngisho nabantu bendawo bavame ukungabaza ngaphambi kokuzama;
  • i-andouillette: umvimba owenziwe kathathu osikiwe, uvame ukuhanjiswa ngososo lwesinaphi;
  • i-gratin dauphinois: indishi yaseceleni yasendulo, amazambane abilisiwe aphekwe ngo-ukhilimu;
  • i-cervelle de canut (cervelle '=' ubuchopho): ushizi omusha ngegalikhi namakhambi.
  • ama-rognons de veau à la moutarde: izinso ze-veal kusoso lwesinaphi. Okumnandi nokwenziwe ngemibhalo.

Lezi zitsha zinambitheka kakhulu. Kwakungukuqala kokudla kwabasebenzi, ngakho-ke ngokuvamile banamafutha futhi izingxenye ngokuvamile zikhulu impela. Izinga lihluka kakhulu kusukela Imigudu kungenye yezindawo eziheha izivakashi zedolobha.

I-Lyon yaqanjwa "njenge-capital of gastronomy" ngumlobi omkhulu we-gastronicic uCurnonsky ku1935; Ngaleso sikhathi kwakungekho zindawo zokudlela ezi-exotic, akukho ukudla futhi kwakungekho muntu owayekhuluma nge-fusion cuisine noma i-bistronomy. Ngenhlanhla, i-gastronomy yendawo ivele kakhulu kusukela ngalesosikhathi futhi manje kuningi okudliwayo eLyon kunase Imigudu. Izitolo zakwa-Kebab, ukudla kwase-Asia, ama-bistros, kanye nezindawo zokudlela ezinenkanyezi ezintathu: ILyon inabo bonke.

Abantu bendawo ngokuvamile bathanda ukudla ngaphandle futhi izindawo ezinhle kakhulu zaziwa ngokushesha ngomlomo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, izindawo zokudlela zincanyana ngokwesilinganiso. Kuyalulekwa kakhulu ukubhuka itafula, ikakhulukazi isidlo sakusihlwa. Njengoba abapheki abaningi bendawo abonakala bejabulela impelasonto yomndeni enhle, kunezindlela eziningi ezithokozisayo phakathi nezinsuku zaphakathi nesonto.

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Amathiphu Asetshenziswayo Wohambo

Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]