hlola iNazca, Peru

Hlola amaNazca Lines, ePeru

Hlola iNazca idolobha ngaphakathi Peruesifundeni eseningizimu yeSouth Coast. Idume kakhulu ngokuthiwa yiNazca Lines, ukuxubana kwemigqa emide, izibalo zejometri, nemidwebo enkulu esihlabathini sogwadule. Ku-1994, baqokwa baba yi-UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Idolobha lanamuhla leNazca lisendaweni lapho impucuko yasendulo yamaNazi yayisuselwa emuva kokuwa kwenhlokodolobha yayo yokuqala, iCahuachi, cishe ngo-AD 400. Ine-exotic, uthuli, ukusetwa kwasogwadule kepha inemilingo emincane ngokwayo. Kunganikeza phakathi kwamahora ambalwa 'nokuzijabulisa kwezinsuku ezimbalwa' kuye ngentshisakalo yomuntu kubantu basendulo baseNazi.

Abantu bakudala baseNazi

Emlandweni wabo omningi, abantu baseNazca babehlala eCeremonia City eCahuachi, isikhungo sasendulo sabahambeli i-28 km eningizimu-ntshonalanga yeNazca yanamuhla. Umphakathi uvele cishe nge-100 BC futhi ubusebenza kuze kube nge-AD 750. Ithonya lawo lasuka eCañete enyakatho iye e-Acari eningizimu. Ingxenye engezansi yesiGodi saseNazca kungenzeka ukuthi yakhethwa ukuba ibeke iCahuachi ngenxa yamanzi ayo amaningi angaphansi komhlaba, okuvumela ukunisela okukhulu kwezolimo ezithuthukisiwe.

Le mpucuko ibibhekele imigqa yeNazi yodumo, izifanekiso ezinkulu zezilwane neminye imiklamo ebonakalayo futhi ebumbeni leNcaca nasezindongeni ezitholakala eCahuachi. Izicucu zobumba ezitholwe futhi ziveza ukuthi abantu baseNazca babuthana ogwadule beyokwenza imicikilisho yenkolo, nezinto ezaziphulwe njengeminikelo konkulunkulu esibhakabhakeni. Izingcezu ezitholakala ogwadule phakathi kwamaNazi amaNazi yilezi zingcezwana zamapayipi nemhlophe, okubonisa ukubaluleka komculo emicimbini yenkolo.

Uchungechunge lwezinhlekelele zemvelo, sezulu kanye ne-tectonic, lwaqala ukuhlehlisa impucuko ezungeze i-AD 350. Ukuzamazama komhlaba kuqeda inhloko-dolobha, iCahuachi, cishe ngo-AD 400, kwashiya umphakathi ungasasebenzi emakhulwini eminyaka alandelayo kusuka endaweni yawo entsha kulokho obekuzoba yiNazi yanamuhla.

Ukutholwa kwesiko lamaNazca

Isiko lamaNazca laqala ukuvusa isifiso semfundo ngobumba lwayo. Kuma-1890s, umvubukuli uMax Uhle wayefunda amasampula e-ceramic e-Anthropologisch-Ethnografische Museum e Dresden. Ukuthunyelwa kwempahla kwakuqukethe imisebenzi eminingi evela eSouth America, kufaka phakathi umsebenzi othile obabazekayo nowemibalabala ovela kubantu baseNazca. Ku-1901 wahamba waya ePeru eyohlola imvelaphi yabo. Ngemuva kwezinyanga zokuthungatha wafika esiGodini sase-Ica endaweni ebizwa ngokuthi i-Ocucaje, lapho ahlangana khona nabalimi abamtshela ngamathuna asendulo lapho le ceramics enemibala yayivame ukutholakala khona. Uhle wemba lezi zindawo futhi wathola ama-ceramics amaNazca amaningi kuzo. Umsebenzi wakhe wethula isiko lamaNazca emhlabeni obanzi.

Ukutholwa kwemigqa yeNazca

AmaNazca Lines aqala ukubonwa lapho i-Faucette, indiza yasePeru yasekuqaleni, iqala ukundiza isuka eLima iya e-Arequipa kuma-1920s. Abashayeli bezindiza baqaphela imigqa — inqamula ugwadule phakathi kwezigodi zasePalpa neNazi.

Ukutholwa kwabashayeli bezindiza kuholele uToribio Mejia Xesspe, umvubukuli, ukuba eze eNazca e1926. Ucwaningo lwakhe lwafika esiphethweni sokuthi imigqa iyingxenye yemigwaqo engcwele yasendulo. I-Xesspe ayikaze indize phezu kwale ndawo futhi yabona kuphela imigqa eqondile; waphuthelwa izibalo.

Ukutholwa okufanelekile kwemigqa kwenziwa ku-1939 nguPaul Kosok waseLong Island University. UKosok weza eNazca ezofunda ngezinqubo zakudala zokunisela, ama-puquios (bheka ngezansi). Ubuke iziteshi waphawula ukuthi ngaphezulu kwe-50 yamanzi asemanzini angaphansi komhlaba ayesasetshenziswa. Watshelwa ngezinye iziteshi ezindala, ezindala kakhulu futhi kanjalo nezazihambela ehlane laseNazca kodwa wagcina ethola imisele emide kuphela. Wacabanga ukuthi mhlawumbe lezi ezinye iziteshi zasendulo zazikude kakhulu ngakho waqasha indiza encane yothuli lwezitshalo ukuba ahambe ayozithola. Endizeni wabona amakhulukhulu emigqa nezindlela zejometri ogwadule. Wakhumbula kamuva ecela umshayeli wendiza ukuba alandele umugqa othile futhi wamangala lapho uholela enyokeni! Kosok kamuva wahlangana noMaria Reiche, owabe esenikela ngokuphila kwakhe ekutadisheni nasekulondolozeni imigqa.

Iziteshi zamaNazca noma i-puquios

Ngemuva kokuwa kweCahuachi, abantu baseNazca basazuza okuthile okuphawulekayo, kepha babevame ukugqashula ukuxoxa. Uchungechunge olubanzi lweziteshi ezingaphansi komhlaba, ama-puquios (igama lesiQecechua ukuchaza isiphethu esingokwemvelo), angenye yezimpawu ezinkulu kakhulu zesiko lamaNazi. Lolu hlelo olungaphansi komhlaba luhlukile eNingizimu Melika, futhi mhlawumbe nomhlaba wonke, ngenxa yokwakhiwa kwalo okuyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu. Iziteshi ezingaphezu komhlaba ze-50 zakhiwa ngaphezulu kwenkanyezi eziyiminyaka zifaka inkanyezi ku-AD 400; eziningi zazo zisasebenza! Ezinye iziteshi ezigcinwe kahle ziseCantalloc, eyaziwa nangokuthi iCantayo, lapho izivakashi zingabona khona uchungechunge lwezimbobo ezivunguza komoya, okungenzeka ukuthi zazisetshenziselwa ukuvumela ukuhlanzwa kweziteshi zeziteshi ziphinde zibuyisele emuva kokuzamazama komhlaba.

I-Nazca ceramics

Amathuna asemfuleni iNazca ayenemisebenzi emihle eyenziwe ngobumba eyayiheha abantu baseNazca kuqala. Umsebenzi osezingeni eliphakeme emikhunjini ukhombisa izithombe ezingokoqobo nezinkimbinkimbi zezwe lasendulo lamaNazi: impilo yansuku zonke, izilwane, izitshalo, izithelo, izinyoni, izinambuzane nonkulunkulu bonke bamelwe. Imikhumbi ekhombisa izidalwa ezenziwe ngesitayela, kufaka phakathi ukwakheka kwe-zoomorphic ne-anthropomorphic, kwesinye isikhathi iqukethe imibala engaphezu kweshumi. Amabhodlela aphatha amabhuloho ane-landfill amabili angukutholwa okuvame kakhulu, kepha amabhodwe ayindilinga nawo akhiqizwa, kanye nezinkomishi nengilazi. Izibonelo ezinhle kakhulu ze-ccaics zeNazca ziseminyuziyamu, njengeMyuo Arqueologico Antonini eNazca, i-Anthropological and Archaeological Museum eLima, Museum we-Ica, nabanye abaningi ePeru nasemhlabeni jikelele.

Izindwangu zeNazca

Inkolelo yabantu baseNazca ngokuphila ngemuva kokufa yaholela ekunciphiseni izidumbu zabo. Izembozo ezazisonga abafileyo zazingezindwangu ezinhle, ezisaqhubeka nekhwalithi yazo nemibala. Abantu baseNazca, njengabanye abantu abaningi bangaphambi kwama-Inca, babekholelwa ukuthi izindwangu zibalulekile ngokomoya, okuholela ekutheni izindwangu zabo zenziwe ngobuciko futhi ziveze izigcawu zobuciko bezemvelo ezindongeni zikotini nefayibha yamakamela e-Andean. Amasampula aqhamuka enhlokodolobha yasendulo iCahcuachi angabonakala eMuseo Arqueologico Antonini eNazca.

Uma uhamba ngeqembu elincane (abantu be-2-4), kulula kakhulu ukuhlela uhambo losuku olulodwa oluhlanganisa iNazica isuka eLima ngezinto zokuhamba ezizimele. Uhambo losuku olulodwa luvame ukubhanqwa ngokuma kwe-Blendas futhi lufaka ukugibela indiza ukubona imigqa. Uhambo lwangasese alushibhile ikakhulukazi, kepha lungakufanelekela uma ufuna ngempela ukubona imigqa futhi ungenaso isikhathi esiningi ePeru. Uhambo losuku olulodwa olusuka eLima luhamba ekuseni (azungeze i-4: 00 AM) bese ubuya sekwedlule isikhathi (ezungeze i-10: 00 PM).

Ukujikeleza eNazca kulula. Ungahamba cishe noma kuphi.

Ukuhlupheka okukhulu kwiNazca ngamathikithi ahlala eziteshini zamabhasi nasemigwaqweni. Zibonisa amahhotela angenamahloni noma angekho nhlobo nabasebenzi bokuvakasha bathi basebenzela ihhotela lakho noma banikeze izindiza ezingabizi kakhulu zokubuka imigqa yeNasca. Ziba indiva futhi ihhotela lakho likulande esiteshini sebhasi.

Yini ukubona. Izindawo zokudlela ezihamba phambili eziphezulu eNazca, Peru.

UMuseo Arqueologico Antonini, Av de la Cultura 606 (landela uJr Bolognese mayelana ne1km empumalanga). Imyuziyamu efundisayo ngezindawo ezizungezile zemivubukulo. Ibuye iqoqe lobumba nezindwangu. Engadini kukhona umsele wamanzi osebenzayo kanye nomfuziselo wesilinganiso wemigqa.

Iziteshi zamaNazca noma ama-puquios eCantalloc Abantu bangaphambi kwama-Inca amaNazi bakha uhlelo lwamanzi amanzi angaphansi komhlaba lokunisela umhlaba owomile onganamanzi angaphezulu komhlaba. Ngakho-ke ngaphandle kwesimo sezulu esibi sasehlane, isifunda seNazca sisingatha amasimu kakotini, ummbila, ubhontshisi, amazambane nezithelo ezisaniselwa yi-30 ngalezi ziteshi ezingaphansi komhlaba. Eduze kukhona imigqa yejometri ehlukahlukene ebekwe ogwadule. Kukhona futhi amanxiwa eInca eParedones.

Amathuna E-Chauchilla Sekuyiminyaka eminingi uChauchilla Cemetery ethathwa ngabazingeli bezimpahla, ababhubhisa yonke le ndawo, bethatha yonke ingcebo omama ababegcinwe emathuneni abo amakhulu eminyaka. Amaphangi ethuna asanda kushiya izidumbu, ezingabonakala namuhla emhlabeni wonke. Ngaphandle kwezinsimbi namathambo, izivakashi nazo zingabona amathuna amaningana asendulo, kanye nezinwele ezinde zabantu, izingcezu zobumba nezinye zihlala zichithekile endaweni eyihlane. Yindawo okuphela kwaso kuyo Peru, lapho izidumbu zakudala zibonakala emathuneni awo akuqala, kanye nezinto zakudala, ezakhiwa emuva nge1000 AD. Le ndawo yokuhlwaya ngezinto zakudala ihlanganiswa nokuvakashela i-Nasca Ceramic workshop, lapho izivakashi zizofunda khona ngecebo elidala lokwenza amabhodwe eNasca kanye nokuvakashela esikhungweni sokukhishwa kwegolide ukubona indlela yakudala yokukhipha igolide isebenzisa izikebhe ezinkulu.

AmaNazca Lines ayinkanyezi (futhi kuphela) ehehayo. Ukusatshalaliswa ngaphezu kwe-500 km² yophahla oluwugwadule phakathi koMfula iNazca noMfula i-Ingenio, kuyizithombe ezinkulu zamaphethini wejometri, izilwane, izibalo zabantu nezinkulungwane zemigqa eqonde kahle eqhubeka amakhilomitha. Zadalwa ngokususa amatshe angaphezulu, kwembula inhlabathi enombala okhanyayo ngezansi. Bayindala ngokungathandabuzekiyo yasendulo (yaqalwa emuva eminyakeni ye-1400-2200), futhi ngokunembile ngokumangalisayo (enemigqa eqondile namajika afile). Izithombe zikhulu kangangokuba zithokoziswa emoyeni, iqiniso okuholele ekutheni abantu baseNazca basendulo bakwazi ukufinyelela kumabhaluni oshisayo noma abasizi bakwamanye amazwe. Iningi labafundi lithi ukunemba kwemigqa kusetshenziselwa izindlela zobuchwepheshe obuphansi, kepha akekho owaziyo ukuthi ngubani owenze noma yini.

Ukusuka ku-2013 izintengo zezindiza nenani labasebenza kuhlanganisiwe ngenxa yezingozi eziningi ezavela emuva eminyakeni embalwa. Abambalwa kuphela abasebenza ngokuthumela izindiza, kufaka phakathi ezokuhamba zombili izindlela ukusuka enkabeni yedolobha. Ungabhuka izindiza zakho ngqo esikhumulweni sezindiza, noma kuma-ejensi asemthethweni. Kukhona futhi izinkambo zomoya ezintsha ezinokuthathwa komuntu ngokwezindlu nezindlu ezitholakala nge-AndesTransit

Kusuka emhlabathini

Kunombhoshongo obonakalayo eceleni komgwaqo omkhulu wasePan-American ngokubuka ezintathu zalezi zibalo kanye nokubheka intaba. Uma uthola i-airsick, nansi indlela okufanele uhambe ngayo. Ungaya lapho ngokuvakasha, izinto zokuhamba zomphakathi, ukuhamba ngezinyawo, noma itekisi. Amabhasi asuka eNazca aya eFlores, eCueva noma eSoyuz adlula embhoshongweni. Hlaba umkhosi ngebhasi ohambweni oluya edolobheni.

Akukho emthethweni ukuhamba ngezinyawo noma eduze kwezibalo zomugqa. Ukwenza lokhu kuphazamisa amatshe anemibala emnyama akha ingemuva lezithombe futhi kulimaza lokho abasePeru manje ababheka njengegugu lesiko elikhulu.

Ukudla

Ukudla okusheshayo futhi okushibhile komgwaqo zama enye yezindawo ekhoneni eliseningizimu-empumalanga yePlaza de Armas.

Izindawo zokudlela ozithola kulo lonke idolobha ezisetshenziswa abomdabu zinikeza imenyu ephelele (isobho, ukukhetha kwezitsha eziphambili ze-3-5, nesiphuzo).

Hlala uphephile

Kukhona abahlinzeki abahlukahlukene bokuhamba edolobheni yize ukuba nehhovisi eNazca akuqinisekisi ukuthi uthembekile. Qikelela kakhulu futhi ungalokothi uthenge kubantu abakhuluma nawe emgwaqweni noma ulinde isitobha sebhasi.

Uma ucabanga ukuthi uhulumeni wasePeru uyifanele imali yakho, sebenza kuphela nebhizinisi elikhokha intela elizokunikeza i-invoice yentela esemthethweni (ebizwa nge- “boleto” noma i- “factura”). Lo mbhalo uzoba negama lebhizinisi nenombolo ye-VAT yalo ephrintiwe kulo, kanye nenombolo eyingqayizivele.

Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni yezokuvakasha yeNazca

Ngeminye imininingwane sicela uvakashele iwebhusayithi esemthethweni kahulumeni:

Bukela ividiyo ngeNazca

Okuthunyelwe kwe-Instagram okuvela kwabanye abasebenzisi

I-Instagram ayibuyisanga i-200.

Bhuka uhambo lwakho

Uma ufuna senze i-Blog Post mayelana nendawo oyithandayo,
sicela usithumele umyalezo I-FaceBook
ngegama lakho,
isibuyekezo sakho
nezithombe,
futhi sizozama ukungeza kungekudala

Amathiphu Osebenzisekayo Wohambo -Blog

Amathiphu Asetshenziswayo Wohambo

Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]