hlola iMunich, eJalimane

Hlola iMunich, eJalimane

Hlola iMunich inhloko-dolobha yaseBavaria. Ngaphakathi komkhawulo wedolobha, iMunich inabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ze-1.5, okwenza kube idolobha lesithathu kunabo bonke e Germany. IGreater Munich kufaka phakathi izindawo ezingaphansi kwayo kunesigidi sezigidi ze-2.7. Isifunda sedolobha elikhulu laseMunich elifinyelela emadolobheni afana ne-Augsburg noma i-Ingolstadt lalinabantu abangaphezu kwezigidi ze-6.0.

IMunich, etholakala emfuleni i-Isar eningizimu yeBavaria, idume ngobuciko bayo obuhle, isiko elihle, nomgubho waminyaka yonke webhiya i-Oktoberfest. Isimo sikaMunich sesiko lesibili asikho eJalimane, lapho iminyuziyamu ibhekwe ngabathile ukuba baphume Berlin ngekhwalithi. Abahambi abaningi eMunich bamangazwe ngokuphelele yikhwalithi yezakhiwo. Yize kulinyazwe kakhulu ukuqhuma kwamabhomu ahambisana nayo ngesikhathi seMpi Yezwe II, izakhiwo zayo eziningi zomlando zakhiwe kabusha futhi isikhungo sedolobha sivela kakhulu njengoba kwenzeka kuma-1800 ngasekupheleni kubandakanya nesonto laso elikhulu kunawo wonke, i-Frauenkirche, kanye nehholo ledolobha elidumile (i-Neues Rathaus ).

IMunich iyisikhungo esikhulu samanye amazwe sebhizinisi, ubunjiniyela, ucwaningo kanye nemithi okwenziwa ukuba khona kwamanyuvesi amabili ocwaningo, inqwaba yamakholishi amancane, indlunkulu yezinkampani eziningi zomhlaba kanye nobuchwepheshe obusezingeni lomhlaba kanye neminyuziyamu yesayensi efana neMyuziyamu yeDeutsches neMnyuziyamu weBMW. Yidolobha laseJalimane elichuma kunawo wonke futhi lenza liphindaphindeke libe yi-10 ephezulu yamazinga wokuphila asezingeni eliphakeme emhlabeni. Amandla kaMunich okuhlala phambili kwezentuthuko yezobuchwepheshe futhi alondoloze amagugu amasiko ayo afingqwa ekubekweni njengedolobha le- "laptop ne-lederhosen".

Izifunda zaseMunich

Umlando

Unyaka i-1158 usuku lokuqala idolobha elikhulunywa ngalo kumbhalo osayiniwe e-Augsburg. Ngaleso sikhathi uHenry iNgonyama, uDuke waseSaxony neBavaria, wayesakhe ibhuloho ngaphezu komfula u-Isar eduze nendawo yezindela zaseBenedictine. Cishe amashumi amabili eminyaka kamuva e1175 Munich yanikezwa ngokusemthethweni isimo sedolobha futhi yathola ukuqiniswa. E-1180, ngecala likaHenry iNgonyama, u-Otto I Wittelsbach waba uDuke waseBavaria kwathi uMunich wanikelwa kuMbhishobhi waseFreising. Uhlu lwamakhosi eWittelsbach lwaluzolawula iBavaria kuze kube yi1918. E-1255, lapho iDuchy yaseBavaria ihlukaniswe kabili, iMunich yaba yindawo yokuhlala yase-Upper Bavaria. Ngasemuva kwe-15th century Munich yathola ukuvuselelwa kwezobuciko be-gothic: I-Old Town Hall yandiswa, kwathi isonto lama-gothic elikhulu kunawo wonke, i-Frauenkirche Cathedral, lakhiwa ngeminyaka engamashumi amabili kuphela, kuqalwa e-1468.

Lapho iBavaria iphinde ihlanganiswa e1506, iMunich yaba inhloko-dolobha yayo. Ubuciko nezepolitiki kwaqala ukukhushulelwa yinkantolo kanti iMunich yayiyisikhungo sokuhlaziywa kabusha kwamaJalimane nezobuciko bokuvuselela abanye. Inhlangano yamaKatolika yasungulwa eMunich e1609. Ngesikhathi sempi yeminyaka engamashumi amathathu uMunich waba yindawo yokuhlala okhethweni, kepha e1632 leli dolobha lathathwa yiNkosi uGustav II Adolph yaseSweden. Lapho kuqubuka inhlupho ye-bubonic ku-1634 kanye ne-1635 cishe ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yabantu bafa.

Umnotho

IMunich inomnotho onamandla kunanoma iliphi idolobha laseJalimane futhi ngesilinganiso esiphansi sokuntuleka kwemisebenzi emadolobheni amakhulu aseJalimane iyachuma kakhulu. Izinkampani eziyisikhombisa kwezingu-30 ezisohlwini lwe-index yezentengiso ye-chip yaseJalimane eluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka ziqondiswa eMunich. Lokhu kufaka i-BMW eyakha izimoto zikanokusho, umakhi wezinjini zikagesi u-Nokia, umakhi wezinjini we-chip, i-MAN okhiqiza amaloli, uchwepheshe wegesi wezimboni uLinde, inkampani enkulu yomshuwalense enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni kanye noMunich Re.

Isifunda saseMunich futhi siyisizinda sezimboni zezindiza, i-biotechnology, isoftware kanye nezimboni zezinsizakalo. Kusetshenziswa kumkhiqizi wezinjini zezindiza iMTU Aero Engines, indiza yezindiza nokuvikela i-EADS (eyikhanda kuyo yonke iMunich nase Paris), umakhi womshini wokubumba umjovo uKrauss-Maffei, ikhamera kanye nomkhiqizi wokukhanyisa i-Arri, isibani esikhulu se-Osram, kanye nendlunkulu yaseJalimane kanye / noma yaseYurophu yezinkampani eziningi zangaphandle ezinjengeMcDonald's, Microsoft ne-Intel.

Njengedolobha elikhulu kakhulu lokushicilela eYurophu, iMunich ilikhaya leSüddeutsche Zeitung, elinye lamaphephandaba amakhulu nsuku zonke eJalimane. Inethiwekhi enkulu kunazo zonke yezokusakaza yomphakathi yaseJalimane, i-ARD, inethiwekhi yayo yesibili ngobukhulu kwezentengiso, iProSiebenSat.1 Media AG, neqembu lokushicilela iBurda nalo litholakala naseMunich nasezindaweni ezizungezile.

IMunich iyisikhungo esihola phambili kwezesayensi nokucwaninga ngohlu olude lwe-Nobel Prize laureates kusuka kuWilhelm Conrad Röntgen e1901 kuya eTheodor Hänsch e2005. Ibamba amanyuvesi amabili wokucwaninga asezingeni lomhlaba (Ludwig Maximilian Universität kanye neTechnische Universität München), amakolishi amaningana nendlunkulu kanye nezindawo zokucwaninga zombili zeMax-Planck-Society kanye neFraunhofer-Society. Kokubili uhlelo lokuhambisa olwandle lwaseYurophu i-Galileo's Center kanye ne-European Space Agency's Columbus Control Center, esetshenziselwa ukulawula indawo yokucwaninga yaseColumbus ye-International Space Station, isendaweni enkulu yokucwaninga eJalimane Aerospace Center (DLR) 20 km ( I-12 mi) ngaphandle kweMunich e-Oberpfaffenhofen.

Ubuciko

Abantu baseMunich abathandi ukuthi idolobha labo lihlotshaniswe kuphela njengomuzi wabhiya ne-Oktoberfest. Futhi ngempela, amakhosi aseBavaria aguqula iMunich yaba idolobha lobuciko nesayensi ngekhulu le-19th. Isikhundla saso esivelele phakathi kwamanye amadolobha aseJalimane kungenzeka ukuthi asephelile, ngenxa yokuthi iBerlin yaba inhloko-dolobha yaseJalimane kuma-1990s, kepha iMunich isalokhu iyindawo eyindawo eyodwa yobuciko eJalimane, isayensi namasiko.

IMunich yaziwa emhlabeni wonke ngokuqongelela kwayo ubuciko basendulo, obudala nobunamuhla, obutholakala eminyuziyamu eminingi kulo lonke idolobha. Iminyuziyamu edume kakhulu yaseMunich itholakala eKunstareal eMaxvorstadt kufaka phakathi i-Alte Pinakothek (imidwebo yaseYurophu kusukela nge-13th kuya ku-18th century), i-Neue Pinakothek (imidwebo yaseYurophu kusuka ku-classicism kuya ku-artveve), iPinakothek der Moderne (ubuciko besimanje), Museum Brandhorst (ubuciko besimanje) noGlyptothek (imidwebo yasendulo yamaGrikhi neyaseRoma).

Ukusuka kuma-Gothic kuze kube sesikhathini seBaroque, ubuciko obuhle bumelwa eMunich ngabadwebi abanjengo-Erasmus Grasser, uJan Polack, uJohann Baptist Straub, u-Ignaz Günther, uHans Krumpper, uLudwig von Schwanthaler, uCosmas Damian Asam, u-Egid Quirin Asam, uJohann Baptist Zimmermann, UJohann Michael Fischer noFrançois de Cuvilliés. UMunich wayesephenduke indawo ebalulekile yabadwebi abanjengoCarl Rottmann, uLovis Corinth, uWilhelm von Kaulbach, uCarl Spitzweg, uFranz von Lenbach, uFranz von Stuck noWilhelm Leibl ngenkathi uDer Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider), iqembu labaculi ababekhuluma ngokudlulele, isungulwe eMunich e1911. Leli dolobha laliyikhaya labadwebi beBlue Rider, uPaul Klee, uWassily Kandinsky, u-Alexej von Jawlensky, uGabriele Münter, uFranz Marc, u-August Macke no-Alfred Kubin.

UMunich ubuye waba sekhaya noma wabanjelwa abaqambi abaningi abadumile nabaculi okubalwa kubo i-Orlando di Lasso, WA Mozart, Carl Maria von Weber, Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler, Richard Strauss, Max Reger noCarl Orff. NgoMunich Biennale owasungulwa nguHans Werner Henze, kanye nomkhosi we-A * DEvantgarde, leli dolobha lisasifaka isandla enkundleni yemidlalo yeshashalazi yanamuhla. INationaltheatre, lapho imisebenzi eminingi kaRichard Wagner yaqala ukusebenza ngaphansi kokubusa kweNkosi uLudwig II, iyikhaya leBavaria State Opera edume umhlaba neBavaria State Orchestra. Eduze kwalapho kwakhiwa khona i-Residenz Theatre esakhiweni esasiyiseCuvilliés Theatre ngaphambi kweMpi Yezwe II. Ama-oparetha amaningi ahlelwa lapho, kufaka phakathi uNdunankulu weMozart "Idomeneo" ose1781. IGärtnerplatz Theatre iyindawo yemidlalo yeshashalazi neyezomculo ngenkathi enye indlu ye-opera, iPrinzregententheatre, isiphenduke ikhaya leBavaria Theatre Academy. Isikhungo sanamuhla saseGasteig sineMunich Philharmonic Orchestra. I-orchestra yesithathu eMunich ebaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni jikelele yiBavaria Radio Symphony Orchestra, eyaqanjwa ngokuthi i-orchestra ye-6th ehamba phambili emhlabeni ngamaphephabhuku i-Gramophone e-2008. Indawo yekhonsathi yayo eyinhloko yiHerkulessaal endaweni eyayihlala edolobho, iRedidenz.

Izincwadi eziningi ezivelele zazisebenza eMunich njengoPaul Heyse, uMax Halbe, uRainer Maria Rilke noFrank Wedekind. Isikhathi ngaphambi kweMpi Yezwe I kwabonakala ukugqama kwezomnotho namasiko kulo muzi. UMunich, futhi ikakhulukazi izifunda zaseMaxvorstadt neSchwabing, zaba yisizinda sabaculi nababhali abaningi. UThomas Mann, owafundela uNobel, naye owayehlala lapho, wabhala ngokubhala kwakhe ngenganekwane yakhe uGladius Dei ngalesi sikhathi, ethi "Munich kwakhanya". Ihlale iyisizinda sempilo yesiko ngesikhathi seWeimar ngezibalo ezifana neLion Feuchtwanger, Bertolt Brecht no-Oskar Maria Graf.

Ikhwalithi yokuphila

IMunich itholakala ngokungaguquki ku-tier ephezulu yamazinga omhlaba wempilo yamadolobha omhlaba. Iphephabhuku iMonocle laze laqamba igama lomuzi ophumelela kakhulu emhlabeni i-2010. Lapho amaJalimane ebuzwa ukuthi angathanda ukuhlala kuphi, iMunich ithola indlela yayo ngokungaguquki phezulu ohlwini. Uma usondele e-Alps nakwezinye izindawo ezinhle kakhulu eYurophu, akumangazi ukuthi wonke umuntu ufuna ukuhlala lapha. Ngeza ezinhlelweni zayo ukwakhiwa okuhle, ikakhulukazi iBaroque neRococo, emaphandleni eluhlaza okuqala nje ukuhamba kwehora eS-Bahn, ipaki elihle elibizwa nge-Englischer Garten, amanyuvesi amabili ahamba phambili eJalimane, umnotho owandayo onendlunkulu yomhlaba wonke Izinkampani ezisezingeni lomhlaba, ingqalasizinda yesimanjemanje, ubugebengu obuphansi kakhulu kanye namasiko obhiya omkhulu kunabo bonke emhlabeni - ngabe kukhona okungahambi kahle ngeMunich? Yebo, kunentengo okufanele ikhokhwe ngokuhlala edolobheni lapho wonke umuntu efuna ukuba khona: IMunich iyidolobha elibiza kakhulu kulo Germany ngamanani entengo yempahla kanye namarenti aphezulu ngaphezulu kwalawo aseBerlin, Hamburg, Cologne or Frankfurt.

IMunich inesimo sezulu sezwekazi, esilungiswe ngokuqinile ngokusondela kwe-Alps. Ukuphakama kwedolobha nokusondela komphetho osenyakatho we-Alps kusho ukuthi kwezulu phezulu. Iziphepho zemvula zingavela ngobudlova futhi zingalindele.

Yini ukubona. Izindawo ezihamba phambili eziphezulu eMunich, eJalimane.

IMunich inikeza izivakashi izinto eziningi nokuheha. Kukhona okuthile kuwo wonke umuntu, akunandaba uma ufuna ubuciko namasiko, ukuyothenga, ukudla okuhle, impilo yasebusuku, imicimbi yezemidlalo noma umkhathi wehholo laseBavaria.

Izikhangibavakashi e Munich

Yini okufanele uyenze eMunich, eJalimane

Yini ongayithenga eMunich

Ukuthi uzodlani - isiphuzo eMunich

Inhlonipho

IMunich yidolobha elihlanzeke kakhulu, lapho abahlali baseMunich beqhosha. Ngakho-ke, ukungcola kuklanyelwe kakhulu. Ngakho-ke uma udinga ukulahla okuthile bheka udoti kunokumane uphonsa izinto emhlabathini.

Lapho usebenzisa ama-escalators, abantu baseMunich bavame ukubeka ohlangothini lokunene lokuma nohlangothi lwesobunxele lwabantu abenyuka izitebhisi. Futhi, lapho ulinda ibhasi noma isitimela, okokuqala makuyekwe abantu, bese bangene.

Ukuphuza utshwala ezokuhamba zomphakathi kuvinjelwe, yize lo mthetho omusha ungakaqhutshwa kuze kube manje.

Contact

Ukufakwa kwefoni kwamaselula kufushane kakhulu edolobheni, kufaka phakathi imigudu engaphansi komhlaba kanye nemigwaqo yesitimela yedolobha.

Izindawo zamahhala ze-inthanethi ezingenantambo zitholakala kumakhofi amaningi, izindawo zokudlela, izikhungo zomphakathi kanye nasemanyuvesi. Vele ubuze umnikazi wekhodi yamanje yokufinyelela futhi uyakwazi ukuhamba.

Ukuphathwa kweMunich kuthumele insiza esemthethweni ye- “M-WLAN” (iWi-Fi) esemthethweni. Kuyatholakala ezindaweni ezisedolobheni elingaphakathi (kuyathandeka kubavakashi). Bona lolu hlu: http://www.muenchen.de/leben/wlan-hotspot.html

Uhambo losuku kusuka eMunich

Izitimela ezingaphansi kwedolobha (S-Bahn) S1 kanye ne-S8 bobabili baya esikhumulweni sezindiza besuka esiteshini saseMunich Central Station kanye nesiteshi saseMarienplatz S-Bahn, kodwa qaphela ngoba umugqa weS1 uqhekeka ezitimeleni ezimbili ezihlukene eNeufahrn ngaphambi nje kwesikhumulo sezindiza, ngakho-ke qiniseka ukuthi ugibele esigabeni empeleni esiya esikhumulweni sezindiza (njalo ingxenye yokugcina yesitimela). Uma uzithola usemotweni engalungile, vele ulinde kuze kube uNeufahrn bese ushintsha engxenyeni yokugcina yesitimela.

I-Andechs Monastery - Uma uphuthelwa yi-Oktoberfest, kufanelekile ukuya entabeni engcwele yama-Andechs. Yisigodlo saphezulu egqumeni elivela e-Ammersee. Thatha i-S5 usuka eMunich uye eHerrsching bese ukhuphuka intaba noma uthathe ibhasi. Lapho ukhona bheka ukubheka esontweni elidala lezindela nezingadi ngaphambi kokubheka ubhiya omuhle kakhulu noSchweinshaxen engadini yebhiya noma ehholo likabhiya omkhulu. Kwenza uhambo olukhulu losuku olungabuye luhlanganiswe nokubhukuda i-Ammersee. Umzila wokuhamba izintaba uhlukile, kanye ne-30-45min enhle. Ngemuva kobumnyama, ithoshi liyaphoqeleka.

I-Chiemsee - ichibi elikhulu kunazo zonke laseBavaria, elinokubukwa okuhle ngaseningizimu ngase-Alps kuneziqhingi ezimbili. IHerreninsel inesiGodlo esihle kodwa esingashabalali esakhiwe ngemuva kweVersailles nguLüdwig II obizwa ngeHerrenchiemsee. UFraueninsel unezigodlo zezindela. Leli chibi elihle liqhele ngehora elilodwa kuphela ukusuka eMunich.

IDachau inikeza uhambo losuku lohlobo oluhlukile. Lungiselela ukushaqeka ngenkani eyenziwe amaNazi ngesikhathi sesithathu seReich esikhonjiswe endaweni yesikhumbuzo yamakamu okuhlushwa eDachau. Ngokwengeziwe ungavakashela Idolobha Elidala laseDachau, lapho ungathola khona ikakhulukazi isigodlo sangaphambilini saseWittelsbach ngezingadi ezi-bloomy kanye nokubuka okuhle ngokubhekise eMunich nasezintabeni ze-Alps nangaphandle kwemibukiso embalwa njengoba kuye kwaba yindawo yabadwebi abadumile.

ISchloss Neuschwanstein itholakala amahora amabili eningizimu yeMunich.

IFüssen ihlanganiswe ezintabeni ezise-Alps eziseningizimu yeBavaria. Isitimela esivela eMunich Central Station sizothatha cishe amahora amabili ngokudluliselwa okukodwa eBuchloe (thenga inketho yeBayern-Tiketi esishiwo ngenhla esebenza kuzo zonke izitimela nokuhamba ngebhasi enqabeni). Leli dolobhana lidume ngenkosi yaseKing Ludwig II “inganekwane” iNetswanstein. Iphinde ibe nenqaba eyakhulela kuyo uLudwig II (Hohenschwangau). Uma uya lapho, thenga ithikithi elihlanganisiwe kuzo zombili izinqaba. I-Neuschwanstein iyindlela yokubona, kepha uHohenschwangau ngokomlando uyathakazelisa kakhulu, futhi ukuvakasha kungcono kakhulu.

IGarmisch-Partenkirchen engaphansi kwentaba ephakeme kakhulu yaseJalimane, iZugspitze. Cishe i-1.5hr ngesitimela sesifunda (kusuka eMunich Central Station) noma ngemoto kwi-autobahn A 95. Isitimela sikaloliwe esiqongweni esiseZugspitze sishiya njalo esiteshini sesitimela i-Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

IKönigssee Leli chibi eliluhlaza emerald lizungezwe udonga lwamatshe olucwebezelayo, olunodonga olusempumalanga lwamamitha ayi-1800 ngasentabeni yaseWatzmann ngaphezulu kogu olusentshonalanga. Thatha omunye wemikhumbi uye eSontweni likaSt Bartholomew futhi ujabulele isimo esinokuthula saleli cwecwe leBavaria Alps.

Isigodlo saseSchloss Linderhof Linderhof singenye isigodlo saseLudwig II okuwukuphela kwaso esasigcwaliswe ngokuphelele. Lesi sigodlo esincane sakhiwa ukuhlonipha iKosi uLouis XIV waseFrance futhi sibonisa ubuhle bezindawo zasendlini kanye nensimu enhle. Enye yezinto ezinhle kakhulu yi-grotto ye-surreal yokufakelwa lapho uLudwig aphindela khona eqinisweni.

INuremberg (isiJalimane: Nürnberg) - INuremberg iyidolobha lesibili ngobukhulu eBavaria elinabantu abacishe babe yingxenye yesigidi. Eminyakeni ephakathi nendawo, abaBusi boMbuso Oyingcwele WaseRoma Wezwe laseJalimane babenenye yezindawo ababehlala kuzo esigodlweni saseNuremberg, namuhla esivulekele izivakashi. Isikhungo sedolobha esikhulu sangezikhathi zaseNuremberg kubandakanya nezingxenye zezakhiwo zedolobha langaphambili zigcinwa kahle futhi kufanele sikuvakashelwe. Kwakunjalo naseNuremberg lapho abanye babaholi bababusi bamaNazi babhekana nobulungiswa.

Regensburg - Idolobha elihle lesikhathi esiphakathi nedolobha laseyunivesithi osebeni lweDanube. Isizinda sedolobha elingumlando siyindawo ye-UNESCO World Heritage Site. Futhi kuyisango eliya kwiHlathi laseBavaria, indawo enezintaba eziphansi, enezingxenye zayo eziBavaria Forest National Park.

ISalzburg (e-Austria) - Indawo azalelwe kuyo uMozart luhambo losuku olulula ukusuka eMunich. Izitimela zivela eMunich Central Station cishe njalo ngehora, futhi zithathe cishe i-1.5hr. Ithikithi leBayern livumelekile ngayo yonke indlela eya eSalzburg.

ILake Starnberg yenza uhambo olulula losuku futhi ingafinyelelwa kalula yi-S-Bahn. ILake Starnberg yindawo enhle lapho ubhukuda khona, ukuhamba, ukujikeleza noma umane ujabulele isiphuzo engadini yebhiya yaseBavaria. U-Empress Elizabeth, owaziwa kangcono njengoSissi, wakhulela ePossenhofen osebeni lwaleli chibi. ILake Starnberg futhi kwakuyindawo yokufa okungaqondakali kweKing Ludwig II nodokotela wakhe wezifo zengqondo. Indawo ezungeze iLake Starnberg umphakathi ocebile kakhulu ngaseMunich futhi ungomunye wabantu abacebe kakhulu eJalimane.

ITegernsee iyisikhungo sendawo yokuzijabulisa eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-50 amakhilomitha eningizimu-empumalanga yeMunich. Izindawo zokungcebeleka echibini leli zifaka phakathi i-Tegernsee engaziwa, kanye ne-Bad Wiessee, Kreuth, Gmund, neRottach-Egern.

Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni yezokuvakasha yaseMunich

Ngeminye imininingwane sicela uvakashele iwebhusayithi esemthethweni kahulumeni:

https://www.muenchen.de/int/en/tourism.html

https://www.munich.travel/en-gb

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Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]