hlola iRoma, Italy

Hlola iRoma, Italy

Hlola iRoma uMuzi Waphakade, inhloko-dolobha nedolobha elikhulu kunawo Italy kanye nesifunda saseLazio. Idume ngokuba yikhaya loMbuso WaseRoma wasendulo, ama-Hills ayisikhombisa, uLa Dolce Vita (impilo emnandi), Vatican City Nezinhlamvu ezintathu Zomthombo. I-Roma, njengesizinda samandla esikhathi eside seminyaka, isiko (okwakungokunye kwempucuko enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni) nenkolo, inethonya elikhulu emhlabeni jikelele eminyakeni yayo eyi-2800 ekhona.

Isikhungo esingumlando kuleli dolobha siyindawo ye-UNESCO World Heritage Site. Njengoba inamakhosi amangalisayo, amasonto aseneminyaka eyinkulungwane, amanxiwa amahle aseRomantic, izikhumbuzo ezinhle, imidwebo emihle nemithombo emihle, iRoma inomlando omningi kakhulu kanye nomkhathi wezulu nomhlaba, okwenza ibe ngeyodwa yezwe laseYurophu nabasivakashele kakhulu, abadumile, abanethonya futhi izihloko ezinhle. Namuhla, iRoma inendawo ekhulayo yobusuku futhi ibonwa njengezulu lokuthenga, ibhekwa njengenye yezindawo zomhlaba zemfashini (ezinye zezinto zakudala zokuhlobisa ubucwebe nezindawo zokugqoka zasungulwa edolobheni).

Njengoba ubona izinto eziningi kakhulu nezinto okufanele azenze, iRoma ingahlukaniswa ngokuthi “idolobha lomhlaba wonke”.

Izifunda

IRoma ingahlukaniswa izifunda eziningana: isikhungo esibizwa ngomlando sincane impela - kuphela lapho kuzungeze i-4% yendawo yedolobha - kodwa yindawo lapho iningi lezindawo eziheha izivakashi likhona.

Isikhungo Sanamuhla

  • Lapho iningi lamahhotela likhona, kanye nezitolo zokudlela nezindawo zokudlela eduze kweVeneto; ekhaya ezindaweni ezizungeze i-Quirinal, i-Trevi fountain, i-piazza Barberini, uCastro Pretorio kanye ne-piazza della Repubblica.

IRoma Elidala

  • Isikhungo senkathi yeRenaissance-dolobha, enezikwele ezinhle, amakati, iPantheon, nendawo yokudlela eningi engabuyiswanga; kufaka ne-piazza Navona, piazza Campo de 'Fiori, kanye (yangaphambili) yamaJuda Ghetto.

Vatican

  • Ezimele Vatican City kanye nemikhondo yayo engapheli yemikhawulo yokubona, izinsalela kanye neminyuziyamu yeVictoria - kanye nezifunda eziseduze zase-Italy zeBorgo, Prati neMonte Mario.

Kolose

  • Inhliziyo yeRoma yasendulo, iColosseum, i-Imperial Fora kanye neMarket of Trajan, igquma leCapitoline kanye neminyuziyamu yalo.

Isikhungo saseNyakatho

  • Itholakala engxenyeni esenyakatho yeRoma, iyikhaya leVilla Borghese, iSpanish Steps, kanye nezifunda eziphakeme zaseParioli naseSalario.

Ukuncipha

  • Isifunda esibukekayo eningizimu yeVatican, ngasentshonalanga yeTiber, sigcwele imigwaqo emincane enamasango nezigcawu ezikhululekile ezazisebenza njengokugqugquzelwa kwabaculi abanjengoGiorgio de Chirico. Manje ngokuyisisekelo sokuphila kobuciko baseRoma.

I-Aventino-Testaccio

  • Izifunda zase-Roma ezingashayiwe-ezishaywayo ezinezimanga eziningi ezilindele abahambi abanentshisekelo, kanye nokudla okuhle impela.

I-Esquilino-San Giovanni

  • INingizimu yeTemini, enemakethe engaphakathi endlini, i-piazza Vittorio Emanuele II kanye ne-Cathedral of Rome - iSt. John e-Lateran.

Nomentano

  • Izifunda “ngemuva” kwesiteshi sesitimela. Impilo yasebusuku esebenzayo eSan Lorenzo.

North

  • Izindawo ezinkulu zomhlaba ezingasenyakatho phakathi nendawo

South

  • Ikhaya e-Appian Way Park, amakati amaningi, ubuciko bokubusa okwenziwe ngobukhulu esifundeni i-EUR kanye namadolobha amakhulu.

Ostia

  • Isifunda saseRoma esinombono wolwandle nezindawo eziningi zokuphumula zolwandle. Ikhaya emanxiweni e-Ostia antica, ichweba laseRoma lasendulo.

Iphakathi komfula iTiber, phakathi kweNtaba i-Apennine noLwandle lwaseTirrheni, “Idolobha laphakade” laliyisikhungo sokuphatha soMbuso WaseRoma onamandla, libusa indawo enkulu eyayisuka eBrithani iya eMesopotamia. Namuhla, leli dolobha liyisihlalo sikahulumeni wase-Italy futhi liyikhaya emahhovisi oNgqongqoshe abaningi

Ngokwezakhiwo nangokwamasiko, iRoma inomehluko ohlukile - unezindawo ezinamakhosi amakhulu amakhulu, ama-avenses kanye nama-basilicas abese ezungezwe umgwaqo omncane omncane, amasonto amancane nezindlu ezindala; ungazithola usuka esigodlweni esihle nasendlini enhle enamapulangwe emigwaqo, uyongena emigwaqweni emincane efana ne-medieval-like.

Isifinyezo esithi "SPQR" - esifushane sesiqubulo sakudala seRiphabhlikhi YaseRoma uSenatus Populusque Romanus (“ISenethi Nabantu BaseRoma”) - siyamangaza eRoma, futhi singesomkhandlu wedolobha laseRoma; ukwahluka okuhlekisayo "Sono pazzi questi romani" (la amaRoma ahlanya).

Amaviki amabili ngo-Agasti, izakhamizi eziningi zaseRoma zazivame ukuvala izitolo zizenzele izindawo zazo zokuphumula; namuhla, noma kunjalo, izinto sezishintshile - izitolo eziningi nezindawo zokudlela (ikakhulukazi lezo ezisenkabeni yomlando ezinakekela izivakashi) zivulwa ehlobo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, zona ezisezindaweni zokuhlala ziyavala. Izinga lokushisa edolobheni ngalesi sikhathi sonyaka alisijabulisi ikakhulukazi: uma uya e-Roma ngalesi sikhathi, ungabona izimpawu ze-chiuso per (zivaliwe ngamaholide) kwizikhungo eziningi. Ngisho kula masonto leli dolobha lihle kakhulu futhi ngaso sonke isikhathi uzokwazi ukuthola indawo yokudlela.

Umlando

Umlando waseRoma uthatha iminyaka eyizinkulungwane ezimbili nesigamu, obone ukuguqulwa kwawo kusuka endaweni encane yaseLatin kuya enkabeni yombuso omkhulu, ngokusungulwa kobuKhatholika, kuya enhlokodolobha yanamuhla Italy. Lesi yisihloko eside futhi esiyinkimbinkimbi.

IRoma ngokwesiko kuthiwa yasungulwa ngamawele asenganekwaneni uRomulus noRemus (amadodana kaMars noRhea Silvia) ku-21 Ephreli 753 BC. La mawele ashiywa njengezingane eMfuleni iTiber futhi akhuliswa yinyamazane (uLupa) ngaphambi kokutholwa ngumelusi (uFaustulus), owakhulisa njengamadodana akhe.

Empeleni, iRoma yasungulwa njengedolobhana elingenhla kweNtaba yePalatine (kufaka nendawo lapho kutholakala khona Ingxoxo YamaRoma) ngesinye isikhathi ngekhulu le-8th BC; ngenxa yesikhundla sedolobhana emfudlaneni emfuleni iTiber, iRoma yaba yindawo yomgwaqo nezithuthi.

Cishe iminyaka eyinkulungwane, iRome yayiyidolobha elikhulu kunawo wonke, elacebile kunabo bonke emhlabeni waseNtshonalanga, eyayinamandla amakhulu eYurophu nolwandle iMedithera. Ngisho nangemva kokuwa koMbuso WaseNtshonalanga WaseRoma e476AD, iRoma yagcina ibaluleke kakhulu nengcebo. Kusukela ngokubusa kukaConstantine I (306-337), uMbhishobhi waseRoma (kamuva owaziwa ngokuthi uPapa) wazuza ukubaluleka kwezepolitiki nakwezenkolo, emisa lo muzi njengesihloko seSonto LamaKatolika.

Ukushayela eRoma kulula impela; njengoba besho, yonke imigwaqo iholela eRoma. Idolobha ligigiyelwe yimoto yezimoto - iGrande Raccordo Anulare noma, umane, yi-GRA. Uma uya maphakathi nedolobha noma imuphi umgwaqo oholela e-GRA uzokuthola lapho; uma uya kwenye indawo, noma kunjalo, i-GPS noma imephu enhle ibalulekile.

IRoma inezikhumulo zezindiza ezimbili eziphambili zamazwe omhlaba:

  • ILeonardo da Vinci / Isikhumulo Sezindiza sase-Fiumicino International. Isikhumulo sezindiza esikhulu eRoma sinamuhla, sikhulu, sisebenza kahle futhi sixhumeke kahle enkabeni yedolobha ngezithuthi zomphakathi. Kodwa-ke, ukufika sekwephuze kakhulu ebusuku kungakukhawulela ngebhasi elingajwayelekile edolobheni uma ungakhokha itekisi.
  • B. I-Pastine / Isikhumulo sezindiza i-Ciampino International. Itholakala eningizimu mpumalanga yedolobha, lesi isikhumulo sezindiza esisezingeni eliphansi sedolobha, sisebenzela izindiza zaseRyanair naseWizzair, phakathi kwabanye). Lesi sikhumulo sezindiza esincane sisondele enkabeni yedolobha kuneFiumicino kodwa asinakho ukuxhumana okuqondile kwesitimela. Lesi isikhumulo sezindiza esincane futhi sivaleka ubusuku bonke; uzovalelwa esikhumulweni sezindiza kuze kube yilapho evula futhi ukungena kokuqala okuzungeze i-04: 30 noma i-05: 00. Ukundiza ungene eCiampino, zama ukuhlala ngakwesokunene sendiza - indiza nje empumalanga enkabeni yedolobha. Ngenkathi indiza ifinyelela eRoma, ungabona i-Tiber bese kuba nenkundla yama-Olimpiki, uCastel Sant'Angelo, iSt Peter neColosseum.

Yini ukubona. Izindawo zokudlela ezihamba phambili eziphezulu e-Roma, e-Italy

AmaNtaliyane azithanda kakhulu izimpawu zawo; ukuze ubenze bafinyelele kuwo wonke umuntu ngesonto elilodwa ngonyaka akukho mali yokuvunyelwa kuzo zonke izinkomba zomphakathi eziphethwe umphakathi nezindawo zomlando. Leli sonto, elaziwa nge- "Settimana dei Beni Culturali", livame ukwenziwa maphakathi no-Meyi futhi kulabo abanezinsuku ezingama-7 kuya ezinsukwini ze-10 yonke indawo ebekiwe, indawo yemivubukulo nomnyuziyamu okuphathelene nezinhlaka zikahulumeni (kufaka phakathi isigodlo se-Quirinal kanye nezingadi zayo, iColiseum kanye yonke Iforamu yasendulo) iyatholakala futhi mahhala.

Ngokuvamile, izinto ezihamba phambili zaseRome amahhala - ngokwesibonelo, ngenkathi akubizi lutho ukungena ePantheon kuzodingeka ukhokhe ukuvakashela iminyuziyamu nokunye.

IRoma lasendulo - IRoma Katolika - Izingcosana Eziyisikhombisa ZaseRoma - Udonga LaseServian ngaphandle kwesiteshi saseThemuini - iminyuziyamu

Ukuhamba uzungeze iRoma

IRoma yezingane

IMnyuziyamu Wezingane, ngeFlaminia, 82. Vele enyakatho ye-piazza del Popolo. Ukungena okulawulwayo e-10: 00, 12: 00, 15: 00 and 17: 00 forvakashele ihora le-1 ihora le-45. Kuvaliwe uMsombuluko futhi ingxenye enkulu ka-Agasti. Kuhle ukubheka iwebhusayithi ukuthola imininingwane esesikhathini futhi ukubhuka ngaphambi kwesikhathi. I-Hands-on science, ikakhulukazi yangaphambi kwentsha, egcinwe endaweni yedepho yangaphambili yetram.

I-Bioparco. IGiardino Zoologico evuselelwe kabusha, i-zoo kamasipala waseRoma. Itholakala emaphethelweni eVilla Borghese. I-09: 30 kuya ku-17: 00 noma i-18: 00 kuya ngenyanga. Bazama kanzima, kepha iSan Diego lokhu akuyona; uma uyi-zoo-goer ejwayelekile uzodumazeka.

I-The Elevator, nge-dei Santi Aposto, i-20 emigwaqweni eseceleni kwe-piazza Venezia neTrevi Fountain. I-10 yansuku zonke: 30-19: 30. "Okubanga ezinhlanu" kuboniswa kumsuka wokuphila kanye nomlando waseRoma, kanye ne "The House of Horwords". Hhayi okwabanenhliziyo edangele: izihlalo zakho zihamba yonke indawo. Izingane ziyayithanda.

UMuseo delle Cere (umnyuziyamu we-wax waseRoma), piazza dei Santi Apostoli, 67, eduze ne-piazza Venezia.

I-Planetarium e-EUR. Ikhaya emnyuziyamu omuhle kakhulu wezinkanyezi, lisendaweni elula eduze neMnyuziyamu Wempucuko YaseRoma.

IVatican, ikakhulukazi, akuwona umqondo omuhle wezingane yize zivame ukuyijabulela iSistine Chapel futhi zihlabeke umxhwele ubuhle kanye neqiniso lokuthi konke kwenziwa ngeminyaka emine nje. Kodwa-ke, iSistine Chapel iminyene kakhulu futhi ifika lapho emigodini ye Vatican Imnyuziyamu yimbi kakhulu. Kulula ukuthi imindeni ihlukane ngakho-ke yisho iphuzu lomhlangano. Ingxenye enhle yeSt Peter's Basilica ukuthi izingane zingaya esiqongweni sedome. Izinyathelo ze-500 kodwa ungathatha izinyusi uye phezulu esitezi sesithathu. Ukusuka lapho kunezinye izinyathelo zokuqeda amandla ze-323. Ngakho-ke kuyajabulisa izingane ezindala ezingakhuphuka zombili izitebhisi bese zihamba phansi njengoba kukhona umugqa omkhulu we-lifti.

I-Zoomarine. Amahlengethwa, amabhubesi asolwandle, izinyoni ezixakile, ukugibela okubhebhethekile kanye namachibi okubhukuda amanye ama-20km eningizimu yeRoma, eduze nasePomezia. Usuku oluhle lokuphuma, kepha ingabe lokhu empeleni kungani uze eRoma? Ukuhamba kwamahhala kusuka esiteshini sesitimela i-EUR nesasePomezia.

Okufanele ukwenze eRoma, e-Italy

Yini ongayithenga eRoma

I-Roma inamathuba amahle kakhulu okuthenga wezinhlobo zonke - okokugqoka nobucwebecwebe (iye yaphakanyiswa njengenhlokodolobha yemfashini ephezulu) kwezobuciko nasezindaweni zakudala. Uthola nezinye izitolo ezinkulu zomnyango, izitolo nezindawo zokuthenga, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni ezingaphansi kwamaphethelo kanye nangaphandle.

Ukudla

I-Roma igcwele izindawo zokudlela ezinhle, eziningi ezilungiselelweni ezinhle, ikakhulukazi uma uhleli ngaphandle kusihlwa. Ayikho indawo eyodwa enganconywa ukusesha indawo yokudlela enhle: ezinye izindawo ezinhle zokudlela ezisezindaweni ezingavikeleki kakhulu ngenkathi izindawo zokudlela ezitholakala kahle zivame ukuhlala kusithunzi sazo kunekhwalithi yokudla kwazo. Izindawo zokudlela ezisezincwadini zeziqondisi zingaba zinhle kepha izintengo zingakhuphuka ngoba kungenzeka ukuthi kube “isicupho sabavakashi.” Ukuthola indawo yokudlela eyiqiniso engeke yaphula ibhange zama ukuthola indawo endaweni yokuhlala eningi noma kwenye indawo engeyona. t phakathi kwezindawo zezivakashi.

Yidla njengomRoma

ERoma ungabuza:

  • ICornetto ne-cappuccino - I-crissant ne-cappuccino (ikofi nobisi olunokhilimu).
  • IPanino - Igama elijwayelekile lesiSandwich eligakiwe.
  • I-Pizza al taglio - I-Pizza ngesilayi.
  • I-Fiori di zucca - Izimbali ze-Zucchini, ezilungiselelwe nge-batter ejulile ethosiwe.
  • I-Supplì - Amabhola erayisi athosiwe notamatisi no-mozzarella.
  • Carciofi alla romana - Artichokes, isitayela samaRoma.
  • Carciofi alla giudia - Artichokes, isitayela samaJuda (othosiwe).
  • I-Puntarelle - Isaladi leChicory elinamafutha omnqumo kanye nama-anchovies.
  • I-Bucatini alla matriciana - Isitsha se-pasta esine-lard esihlathini, utamatisi kanye ne-pecorino romano (ushizi wezimvu waseRoma).
  • I-Spaghetti (noma i-rigatoni) i-alla carbonara - Isosi eyenziwe ngeqanda ne-pancetta (ubhekeni).
  • Abbacchio "alla scottadito" - amawundlu e-lamb.
  • I-Scaloppine alla romana - I-Veal sautéed enama-artichokes asanda kuzalwa.
  • I-Coda alla vaccinara - i-Oxtail stew.
  • I-Trippa alla romana - iTripe; ukweqa kuyisiko lamaRoma, isb osso buco (umongo wamathambo).

Izindawo eziningi zokudlela ezinhle kakhulu e-Roma, noma kunjalo, kunzima ukuthola njengoba iningi lazo zitholakala ngaphandle kwesikhungo somlando - ithiphu elihle ukuhamba lapho kuhlala khona amaNtaliyane futhi adle. Isibonelo, ngaphesheya kweJaniculum (esifundeni saseMonteverde vecchio) kukhona ama-trattorie ane-cuisine eyiqiniso yase-Italy ngentengo efinyelelekayo. IRoma ibuye ibe nezindawo eziningi ezinhle ongazidla, ngakho-ke ukuthenga ezinye izibiliboco zokwenza ipikiniki kungaba yinto enhle. Inketho engabizi kakhulu ukuya esitolo sendawo nayo ezoba nokudla okuhle kwasemini.

Ukuphuza eRoma

Talk

ERoma inani labantu likhuluma isiNtaliyane kanti izimpawu zomgwaqo ikakhulukazi zikulolo limi (ngaphandle kwe- "STOP"). Uma uhlala edolobheni, kunezindlela eziningi zesiNgisi ezizotholakala; I-Roma yindawo ethandwayo yokuvakashela futhi kunamamephu nolwazi ngezilimi eziningi ezitholakalayo. Amaphoyisa nabashayeli bezokuhamba bazimisele kakhulu ukukusiza ukuthi ujikeleze futhi imvamisa ukuhlinzeka ngezindlela ezilula zokuzungeza.

Futhi, izakhamizi eziningi zikhuluma - kuya ngamazinga ahlukahlukene - ulimi lwesiRoma lwasendaweni okungaba nzima ukuluqonda uma usanda kuthatha i-Italian.

IsiNgisi sikhulunywa kabanzi eRoma yizizukulwane ezincane nangabantu abasebenza embonini yezivakashi; phakathi kwe-40 + s ithuba lokuthola abantu abakhuluma isiNgisi lincane kakhulu, futhi ngama-60 + s amahle njenge-zero. Iningi lamaRoma, kepha, lihlala lizama ukusiza kubavakashi ngokunikeza izinkomba ezithile eziyisisekelo - futhi njengoba abantu abaningi benolwazi olulinganiselwe lwesiNgisi, kuwukuhlakanipha ukukhuluma kancane nangokulula.

Izilimi zothando ngaphandle kwe-Italian - ikakhulukazi iSpanishi, isiFulentshi nesiPutukezi, nazo kungaqondakala (iSpanishi kangcono kunePutukezi) ngenxa yokufana kwazo ne-Italian, yize kungakhulunywa kangako. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, isiRomania asiqondakali kahle yize silulimi lwesiRomance. Noma kunjalo, qiniseka ukuthi ungadidanisi isiNtaliyane neSpanishi, noma ukhulume nabantu bendawo ngalolo limi - bangahle bangayiphathi ngomusa.

Uhambo losuku kusuka eRoma

  • yasePompeii luhambo losuku.
  • Hlola izingosi ze-Etruscan zeCaveteri, Tarquinia neVulci.
  • Ubhekise eFrascati, elinye lamadolobha omlando asentshonalanga eningizimu-empumalanga yeRoma eyaziwa ngokuthi iCastelli Romani. Leli dolobhana bekuyindawo ethandwayo lapho sekudlule amakhulu eminyaka kude nokuxinana nenhlokodolobha, futhi lokhu kusasebenza nanamuhla. Idume umhlaba wonke ngewayine yayo emhlophe, iFrascati iyidolobha elisezintabeni elivuselelekile elinokuphila okuhamba kancane. Vele i-21km ukusuka eRoma. ICastelli nguCastel Gandolfo indawo yokuhlala yasehlobo uPapa. Idolobhana libheka iLake Albano, uhambo oluthandekayo lwangempelasonto lwamaRoma ehlobo. Futhi ukutholakala ngebhasi nangesitimela kodwa kunamadolobhana amaningi amadolobhana nezindawo eziseCastelli ngakho-ke ukuqasha imoto yosuku kuzovuzwa kahle.
  • I-Ostia Antica iyichweba lasendulo kanye nekoloni lezempi laseRoma. Kuyindawo eyisikhumbuzo kancane efana neForamu YaseRoma; kodwa-ke, e-Ostia Antica ungathola umbono wokuthi idolobha laseRoma lalibukeka kanjani ngempela.
  • Cabanga ngohambo losuku oluya eTivoli ukubona i-Villa d'Este enemithombo yayo edumile neyikhazimulayo. Bheka i-Emperor Hadrian's Villa ngenkathi uphuma lapho.
  • Qonda iMpi Yezwe Yesibili in Italy ngokuvakashela indawo ese-Anzio beachhead neMonte Cassino. Uma uyi-buff yomlando, umnyuziyamu wamasosha weVigna di Valle, eduze neLake Bracciano, kufanelekile ukuvakasha: uneqoqo elihlaba umxhwele lezindiza zamasosha ase-Italiya kusuka eWW1 kuze kube namuhla.
  • Iya e-Ischia naseCapri - iziqhingi ezidumile eGulf of Naples.
  • Thola idolobha likapapa laseViterbo, indawo yangaphakathi eyaziwayo neyendawo eshisayo. Ulwandle lude impela, kepha ungakhohlwa isudi yakho yokugeza. Ngemuva kokuhambela, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi sasebusika, kufanele ungene emanzini okugeza kaPapa okushisayo: amanzi entwasahlobo afinyelela kwi-58 ° C!
  • I-Civitavecchia, itheku laseRoma, iphuzu lokufika nokusuka kwamakhulu wemikhumbi, ukuhamba ngezikebhe, kanye nezikebhe ezihamba yonke indawo ezungeze iMedithera. Ukusuka lapha kungenzeka ukufinyelela eSardinia, eCorsica, eSicily, Spain, France, ezinye ezinye iziqhingi ezincane, ngisho nenyakatho ye-Afrika.
  • ICanterano yidolobha elihle elise-Apennines; kufanele ukuvakashelwa.
  • Akuwona umqondo omubi uhambo lwezinsuku ezintathu noma uhambo losuku olulodwa lokuya eFlorence ngesitimela, ikakhulukazi uma uhlala eRoma ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezintathu. Ungavakashela uFlorence ngamahora ambalwa uma weqa umnyuziyamu wase-Uffizi.
  • ISanta Marinella ingumbutho wolwandle ngaphandle komuzi onesihlabathi solwandle. Kuncane, kepha bekungasho lutho phakathi neviki lomsebenzi.

Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni yezokuvakasha yaseRoma

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Bukela ividiyo ekhuluma ngeRoma

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Amathiphu Asetshenziswayo Wohambo

Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]