hlola iMycenae, Greece

I-Mycenae, Greece

Hlola iMycenae indawo yemivubukulo, egqumeni i-900m ngaphezulu kwezinga lolwandle, eduze neMyinesine ePeloponnese. Cishe yi-120km eningizimu ukusuka Athens.

Inkulungwane yesibili BC, iMycenae yayingenye yezikhungo ezinkulu zempucuko yamaGrikhi, futhi enye yezimpucuko ezibaluleke kakhulu eyake yabona ukukhanya kosuku.

Izingcezwana zokuqala zakudala zibonisa ukuthi indawo iMycenae yayihlalwa kuyo kusukela eminyakeni eyinkulungwane ye-7th BC, kusukela ezikhathini zangaphambi kwesikhathi. Esimweni esivelele, esinamandla ngokwemvelo phakathi kwamagquma azolile we-Profitis Ilias, noSara, esinamanzi amaningi, bekuyindawo ekahle yokuba umuntu akwazi ukuhlala futhi aphile impilo evikelekile.

Phakathi kwe-2700 ne-2200 BC, kwakukhona idolobha elinabantu abaningi nelichumayo. Isakhiwo esiyindilinga, amamitha ayi-27 ububanzi obukhulu busegqumeni, sinikeza ubufakazi bamandla wedolobha angenakuphikwa. Izinqaba zaseTiryns zaqedwa ngezigaba, ukuvikela izakhiwo zasendlini, izindawo zabo zokukhulekela nezindawo zabo zokungcwaba. Izindlu zokugcina izindlu, amaworkshop nezindlu ziqedela isithombe sedolobha elachuma cishe iminyaka eyi-2000, kuze kube ngekhulu le-5th BC.

Cishe i-1700 BC, ukwakhiwa kwaqala ethuneni lokuqala lesikhumbuzo. Ngemuva kwalokhu, kunwetshwa ukukhula ngesivinini esikhulu. Izakhiwo zasePalatial, ukwakhiwa kweCyclopean okumangazayo ngisho nanamuhla, i- "Tomb of Agamemnon", izindonga ezinkulu, imithombo nemigwaqo eyindilinga yakha enye yezakhiwo ezinkulu kakhulu zokwakha ezaziwa umhlaba wasendulo.

Ama-apogee ama-Mycenaean's, ngesakhiwo sawo esihle, ezibunjiwe kanye nezimpucuko eziyinkimbinkimbi, kwenzeka kwi-Late Bronze Age, phakathi kwe-1350 ne-1200 BC.

Ukwehla kwe-Mycenae kwenzeka cishe nge-1100 BC, kungenzeka ngenxa yomonakalo ophindaphindwe kusukela ekuzamazameni komhlaba nemililo. Babekwazile, kepha, ukuthi bake baba ngumbuso omkhulu ngempela, ogcizelele isithunzi sabo emlandweni hhayi kuphela Greece, kepha umhlaba wonke.

Ukwakhiwa kwegquma kwegquma laseTiryns okuvikela isakhiwo sesigodlo ukwakhiwa okuhlaba umxhwele kangangokuba amaGrikhi asendulo ayengakholelwa ukuthi lakhiwa ngezandla zabantu. Ngakho-ke, abaklami bezakhiwo zaseTiryns kuthiwa babeyizincwadi zesayensi. Onke amaqhawe amakhulu anamandla angaphezu kwawemvelo ahlotshaniswa noTiryns: Bellerophon, Perseus, noHercules. Ngempela, ukwakhiwa kodonga akukholeki futhi kuyinselelo enengqondo, nakuba izivakashi zanamuhla. Umuntu umangale phambi komhlangano ophelele walezi zingqimba ezinkulu, angaqondi ukuthi ngabe wenza kanjani umsebenzi wobunjiniyela obukhulu kanjena.

Ukujwayela impucuko yaseMycenaean kubandakanya ukwehla ekujuleni komlando wesintu. Uma ubheka iMycenae neTiryns, umuntu ulahlekelwa yikho konke ukuqonda kwesikhathi. Inganekwane nomlando kuhlangana ngemoto efana nephupho. Onkulunkulu, asebekhunjulwe ngegama emibhalweni ye-Mycenaean syllabic, babonakala bejwayele ngandlela thile. Amaqhawe asahamba wedolobha laseMycenae, abaqaphi besikhathi esedlule.

Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni yezokuvakasha yeMycenae

Ngeminye imininingwane sicela uvakashele iwebhusayithi esemthethweni kahulumeni:

Bukela ividiyo mayelana neMycenae

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Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]