auschwitz

I-Auschwitz, ePoland

I-Auschwitz igama eliyigama elinikezwe amakilasi wokuhlushwa, amakamu wezabasebenzi kanye nokuqothulwa akhiwa amaJalimani phakathi neMpi Yesibili Yomhlaba, eyayingaphandle kwedolobha lase-Oświęcim e-Underer Poland I-Voivodehip, eningizimu yePoland, i-65 km (40 mi) entshonalanga ye I-Kraków. Amakamu abe yindawo yabahambi abasindayo, imindeni yabo, nabo bonke abafisa ukukhumbula nokucabanga ngokuQothulwa Kwesizwe. Izizathu ziyindawo ye-UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Yize kungeyona ukuphela kwekamu lokuhlushwa nokuqothulwa kwabaseJalimane, hhayi i-Germany kuphela, okuyisibonakaliso esiphambili sokuQothulwa Kwesizwe ekwazini komhlaba wonke, okubonisa ukwesatshiswa, ukuqothulwa kohlanga kanye nokubhujiswa kwabantu. Ngesikhathi sempi, ikamu lenkambu laba likhulu kunabo bonke abake basebenza umbuso wamaNazi.

Ekuqaleni wayengumuntu wase-Austro-Hungary futhi kamuva waba yiButho Lempi LasePoland ngaphambi kokuqala kweMpi Yezwe Yesibili, amaNazi ahlaselayo athatha igunya lesikhungo sezempi kulandela ukumiswa kwesifunda yi-Reich Reich e-1939. Igama ledolobhana elingumakhelwane i-Oświęcim lalihunyushwa ngokuthi yiJalimane i-Auschwitz, nayo eyaba igama lekamu. Kusukela ku-1940, zonke izakhamuzi zasePoland nezamaJuda zase-Oświęcim zaxoshwa, kwathathelwa indawo izifiki zaseJalimane, lezo i-Reich Reich ehlelele ukuhlela umphakathi oyisibonelo. Ikamu liqale ukusebenza ngo-14 Juni 1940, ekuqaleni kwakuhlala iziboshwa zezombusazwe zasePoland, ezakha iningi labantu bekamu kuze kube i1942. Izigxobo zaphathwa ngesihluku esikhulu, kwathi ngaphezulu kwesigamu seziboshwa zasePoland ze130-150,000 zafa.

Njengoba inani leziboshwa lalikhula, ikamu lalanda kusuka esikhungweni sokuqala samabanjwa. I-Auschwitz II-Birkenau, edolobhaneni eliseduze eBrzezinka, yaqala ukwakhiwa ngo-Okthoba 1941 ngenhloso yokuqala ukufaka iziboshwa zempi zaseSoviet. Ngokubambisana neziboshwa zasePoland, amasosha aseSoviet abhekana nokuhlolwa kweZyklon B ngabaphathi bekamu le-SS ngasekupheleni kwe1941. Kusukela ku-1942, amaJuda ngamanani amakhulu aqala ukuthunyelwa esakhiweni sekamu, kanye nezinkulungwane zeziboshwa zaseRoma. Inkampani eyandayo kamuva yanwetshwa ukuze ifake i-Auschwitz III-Monowitz ngo-Okthoba 1942, ikamu lokusebenzela izigqila elinikeza umsebenzi wesakhiwo sezimboni se-IG Farben esiseduze. Maphakathi nempi, i-Auschwitz yayikhule yafaka amakamu amancane ama-40 emadolobheni angomakhelwane esifundeni.

Ukusuka ku-1942 kuqhubeke, i-Auschwitz yaba ngesinye sezimpawu ezinkulu zokubulawa kwabantu abaningi emlandweni. Iningi lamakamu ama-1.1 amaJuda ayesekamu, amantombazane, nezingane, asuswa emakhaya abo enqamula eYurophu aya e-Auschwitz, bathunyelwa ngokushesha ekufeni kwabo emakamelweni egesi eBirkenau lapho befika, ngokuvamile bathuthelwa ekamu ngezinqola zezinkomo ezigcwele kakhulu. Izidumbu zabo ngemuva kwalokho zashiswa ezindlini zezimboni kule ndawo eshisiwe. Labo ababengabulawanga emagumbini egesi bavame ukubulawa yizifo, indlala, izivivinyo zezokwelapha, ukuphoqelelwa ngenkani, noma ukubulawa.

Ngasekupheleni kwempi, emzameni wokususa yonke iminonjana yamacala ababewenzile, ama-SS aqala ukudiliza futhi acekela phansi amagumbi kagesi, i-crematoria, nezinye izakhiwo, kanye nemibhalo evuthayo. Iziboshwa ezikwazi ukuthutha zaphoqeleka ukuthi zihambele imigwaqo ziya kwezinye izindawo ezisele zeReich Reich. Labo abasala ngemuva kwekamu bakhululwa ngamasosha e-Red Army ku-27 Januwari 1945. Ama-1.3 abalelwa ezigidini ezingama-XNUMX, amaPule, amaSoviet Pows, amaRom, abongqingili kanye noFakazi BakaJehova babebulewe emakamu ngesikhathi senkululeko.

IPhalamende lasePoland lasungula i-Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum ngezizathu zezingxenye ezimbili zekamu, i-Auschwitz I ne-Auschwitz II-Birkenau e1947. I-Auschwitz yaba yi-UNESCO World Heritage Site e-1979. Namuhla, isikhumbuzo siheha izivakashi eziyisigidi njalo ngonyaka.

Isikhumulo sezindiza esiseduzane kakhulu nale ndawo yiJohn Paul II International Airport, eyaziwa kangcono njengeBalice Airport ngabantu bendawo, futhi yi-54 km (34 mi) entshonalanga eduze kweKraków ku-A4 motorway.

Ngenye indlela, izivakashi eziya e-Auschwitz zingasebenzisa iKatowice Airport eKatowice, etholakala 62 km (39 mi) enyakatho nesiza. Yaziwa endaweni njengasesikhumulweni sezindiza sasePyrzowice, iKatowice inokuxhumana okuqondile nezindawo ezingaphezu kwe-30 kulo lonke elaseYurophu nase-Asia, ngezaphulelo eziningi, i-charter nezindiza ezijwayelekile ezisebenzayo.

Uhambo olusuka eKrakak

Izinkampani eziningana zinikezela ukuvakasha okuvela eKraków cishe nge-130-150PLN. Lezi zinkampani zikhangisa kakhulu ngokuzungeza idolobha, ngakho-ke izivakashi ngeke zibe nenkinga yokuthola eyodwa. Lokhu kuvakasha kungafaka ukuthathwa kweminibus kusuka noma yikuphi eKraków, noma ibhasi eligcwele ukuvakasha okuqondisiwe. Ukuvakasha kuyatholakala kusuka kumahhotela amaningi noma kwizikhungo zemininingwane yabavakashi. Uhambo lwebhasi elijwayelekile phakathi kweKraków ukuya e-Auschwitz yimizuzu eyi-90, okuvame ukuthi kube nokuma okuthile lapho.

Ukungena

Ukungena kumahhala sekujwayelekile, kepha izinombolo zezivakashi zilawulwa ngohlelo lwamathikithi. Yazi ukuthi ngenxa yamanani amakhulu abavakashi, ukungena kwisiza se-Auschwitz I kwenziwa kuphela kuhambo olukhokhelwayo olukhokhelwayo (nokho ngeshwa kunalokho kuyaphuthuma) uhambo oluphakathi kwe10: 00 kuya ku-15: 00 phakathi nesikhathi ukusuka ku-1 Ephreli kuya ku-31 Okthoba. Ungavakashela isiza ngokwakho (kunconyelwa kakhulu, njengoba izivakashi zingahamba ngejubane lazo, ukubona ukuthi zifuna ukubona ini, futhi ube nesipiliyoni esiqonde ngokwengeziwe) uma ufika ngaphambi kwe-10: 00 (kangcono i-8: 00 -9: 00) noma ngemuva kwe-15: 00 (kuya ngesizini nangosuku lwesonto).

Ukuvakasha kuthatha amahora we-3 ngekhefu elingu-20 ngemuva kwamahora cishe we-1.5. Uhambo luhamba njalo ngemizuzu ye-15 noma njalo ngemizuzu ye-30 ngokuya ngolimi lokuvakasha.

Isayithi le-Auschwitz II-Birkenau livulekele izivakashi ngaphandle kwesiqondisi ngesikhathi sokuvula kweSikhumbuzo. Futhi ungabhuka umhlahlandlela wokuvakasha oyimfihlo kusuka kumnyuziyamu ohambweni lokufunda ngehora le-6 (400PLN).

Izinsuku zokusebenza

Imnyuziyamu ivuliwe unyaka wonke, izinsuku eziyisikhombisa ngesonto, ngaphandle kukaJanuwari 1, uDisemba 25, kanye ne-Easter ngeSonto. Amahora isikhumbuzo sonke silandela lawo omnyuziyamu.

Ukudlula

Isikhumbuzo se-Auschwitz kanye neMnyuziyamu sizula kalula ngezinyawo. Kukhona ibhasi elivaliwe elikhululekile phakathi kwezindawo ze-Auschwitz I neBirkenau, zishiya njalo isigamu sehora ngehora ukusuka e-Auschwitz I kuya eBirkenau, futhi zihamba ngendlela ephambene njalo nemizuzu ye-15 yehora ngezikhathi zokuhamba ngehora. Uyacelwa ukuthi ubheke isikhathi esitobhini sebhasi njengezikhathi kanye namahora okusebenza angashintsha kuye ngesizini, noma ungahamba amamayela amabili phakathi kwamakamu. Uma usanda kuphuthelwa yibhasi, itekisi phakathi kweziza izobiza nge-15PLN.

Uhambo luhlinzekwa ngumnyuziyamu ngemali ebhalwe ngezilimi ezahlukahlukene, futhi kuyanconywa uma ufuna ukuqonda okujulile kwesayithi, kepha ngeshwa bashesha, futhi ungathola umuzwa omuhle ngokuthenga incwadi yomhlahlandlela nemephu nokuzulazula ngakwesokunxele sakho ukuze ucabangele isiza. Umbukiso ngamunye uchazwa ngesiPolish nezinye izinguqulo zolimi. Ubukhulu bobubi nokwesabisa okwenzeka lapha cishe akunakucatshangwa, futhi umhlahlandlela ungasiza ekubekeni umongo ukuthi yiliphi igumbi eligcwele izinwele zabantu noma ukuthi izinkulungwane zezingane zezingane zisho ukuthini. Bazokutshela futhi nangeziboshwa zangaphambili ezibuyile ukuzobona imnyuziyamu.

Yini ukubona. Izindawo zokudlela ezihamba phambili eziphezulu e-Auschwitz

I-Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum (Państwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau), ul. Stanisławy Leszczyńskiej 11. NgoJanuwari, Novemba 8: 00-15: 00; NgoFebhuwari 8: 00-16: 00; Mashi, Okthoba 7: 30-17: 00; Ephreli, Meyi, Septhemba 7: 30-18: 00; NgoJuni, Julayi, Agasti 7: 30-19: 00; NgoDisemba 8: 00-14: 00. Ukungena e-Auschwitz ngisekhaya i-Auschwitz State Museum, enikeza ifilimu elingu-15, eladutshulwa amasosha aseSoviet ngosuku olulandelayo ngenkululeko yekamu. Ifilimu ibiza i-3.5PLN ukuyibuka (futhi ifakiwe kumanani wohambo oluqondisiwe). Imibukiso iphakathi kwe-11: i-00 ne-17: i-00 (ngesiNgisi phezulu ihora nePoland ngehora lesigamu). Kunconywe kakhulu, kepha kuyaphazamisa futhi akulungele izingane ezincane. Izitolo zezincwadi nezindawo zokugeza zilapha. Futhi cabanga ngokuthenga incwadi yeziqondisi noma imephu.

Auschwitz I, ul. Stanisławy Leszczyńskiej 11. Ikamu lokuqala elalisetshenziswa (elibizwa ngokuthi yiStammlager ngamaJalimane), elaliqukethe amabutho amadala ePolish Army aguqulwa kamuva aba izindlu zokuhlala, amakamelo okuhlushwa, izizathu zokubulawa, nezakhiwo zokuphatha ze-SS. Isango elidumile le-Arbeit macht frei litholakala lapha. Ngaphakathi ezakhiweni eziningi zamabarrack kukhona imibukiso engokomlando ephathelene nezizwe ezahlukahlukene ezaqhutshwa ekamu, imibukiso yevidiyo, izithombe, nezimpahla zomuntu siqu ezibonisa impilo nesihluku sengozi yamaNazi. Okuwukuphela kwegumbi elisele legesi litholakala e-Auschwitz I kodwa uqaphele ukuthi, njengoba kukhonjisiwe ngaphakathi kwegumbi, lalakhiwe kabusha ngendlela yalo ngesikhathi sempi ngemuva kwempi.

I-Auschwitz II-Birkenau, ul. Ofiar Faszyzmu 12. Ingxenye yesibili nobukhulu kunayo yonke yekamu, ese3 km ukusuka e-Auschwitz I edolobhaneni laseBrzezinka, indawo yesango lesitimela elidume kabi. Izivakashi zingabona izinsalela zezakhiwo lapho iziboshwa ezingenayo zaziphuciwe futhi zinikezwe izingubo zazo “ezintsha”, imanxiwa emakamelweni amahlanu namagesi okushisa izidumbu, izindawo eziningi ezisindile, amachibi lapho umlotha wamakhulu ezinkulungwane ulahlwa khona ngaphandle komkhosi, nendawo enkulu isikhumbu samatshe ebhalwe ngobuningi bezilimi. Ukuhamba ngesiza sonke kungathatha amahora amaningi. Abanye abavakashi bangathola okuhlangenwe nakho kokuhlukumezeka.

Yini okufanele uyenze e-Auschwitz

Bamba iqhaza kolunye lohambo oluqondisiwe lwendawo, noma uzulazule ngokwakho endaweni leyo.

Vakashela ngokwakho ngosuku noma ezimbili ngemuva kohambo oluqondisiwe. Ukuvakasha okuqondisiwe kunikeza imininingwane eminingi ewusizo kanye nomlando wale ndawo, kodwa futhi kungahle kugijinyiswe kancane ukuzwa imizwa yendawo.

Ukudla

Kukhona i-cafe eyisisekelo kanye nendawo yokudlela esikhungweni esikhulu sabavakashi i-Auschwitz I, enezinketho eziningi esakhiweni esincanyana sezentengiso esiwela umgwaqo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, kunomshini wekhofi esitolo sezincwadi saseBirkenau. Izitebele ezincane ezimbalwa ezidayisa iziphuzo nokudla ziseduze nomnyuziyamu omkhulu osekupheleni kwe-Auschwitz I bus / car park.

Lapho ulala khona

Awukwazi ukulala emakamu. Izinketho zokuhlala eziseduzane zise-Oświęcim.

Inhlonipho

Uyacelwa ukuthi ukhumbule ukuthi uvakashela indawo yamathuna amaningi, kanye nesiza esinencazelo ecishe ibonakale engxenyeni ebalulekile yabantu bomhlaba. Kusenabesilisa nabesifazane abaningi abasaphila namuhla abasindile ekuqeqeshweni kwabo lapha, nabanye abaningi ababenabathandekayo babo ababulewe ngalezi zizathu, amaJuda nabangewona amaJuda ngokufanayo. Sicela uphathe isiza ngesithunzi futhi usihloniphe ngokungafanele. Ungenzi amahlaya mayelana nokuQothulwa Kwesizwe noma amaNazi. Musa ukungcolisa isiza ngokumaka noma ukuskena i-graffiti kwizakhiwo. Izithombe zivunyelwe ezindaweni ezingaphandle, kepha khumbula ukuthi lokhu kuyisikhumbuzo kunokuheha izivakashi, futhi ngokungangabazeki kuzoba nezivakashi ezinokuxhumana komuntu siqu nesayithi, ngakho-ke qaphela amakhamera.

Ukwenqatshwa kokuQothulwa Kwesizwe kuyicala lobugebengu ePoland, nezinhlawulo ezisukela ezinhlawulweni ezinzima kuya kwesigwebo seminyaka emithathu.

Phuma

  • I-Kraków - Inhlokodolobha yesifundazwe engaphansi nedolobha elikhulu kunawo wonke, elibhekwa njengenhliziyo yamasiko Poland kanye nokuheha okukhulu kwabavakashi, okuku-60 km (37 mi) empumalanga.
  • Katowice - idolobha elikhulu nenkundla yezimboni yaseSilesia, manje esiyisikhungo sezamasiko abasafufusa ngokwayo. Idolobha liyi-35 km (22 mi) enyakatho-ntshonalanga ye-Auschwitz.
  • I-Bielsko-Biała - idolobha i-32 km (i-20 mi) eningizimu yesiza, ikhaya lesikhungo sasedolobheni esithandekayo sase-Austro-Hungary, nesango eliya ezintabeni ezinhle zaseBeskid.
  • I-Pszczyna - idolobha elibukekayo ngaphesheya komngcele waseSilesian 23 km (14 mi) entshonalanga, ikhaya liya e-Pszczyna Castle.
  • ICieszyn - elinye idolobha elihle laseSilesian lomlando, elise 64 km (40 mi) eningizimu-ntshonalanga. UCieszyn uqaqa umngcele weCzech-nePoland, ehlanganyela ubudlelwane bezamasiko obuhlangene nomakhelwane wakhe waseCzech Český Těšín. Isango elihle kakhulu eliya eCzech Republic.

Iwebhusayithi esemthethweni yezokuvakasha ye-Auschwitz

Ngeminye imininingwane sicela uvakashele iwebhusayithi esemthethweni kahulumeni:

  • http://auschwitz.org/en/visiting/

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Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]