Poland

Poland

IPoland iyizwe eliseCentral Europe, emngceleni we-Baltic Sea ogwini olusenyakatho, i-Czech Republic neSlovakia eningizimu, Germany entshonalanga, naseLithuania, Russia (i-Kaliningrad Oblast exclale), i-Ukraine, neBelarus empumalanga.

Enye yezindawo zokuqala eziqashelwa unomphela ngaphakathi kwemingcele yasePoland yanamuhla yinqaba ye-Iron Age yaseBiskupin, eyaqanjwa nge700 BC. Ngemuva kwamakhulu eminyaka, ababhali baseRoma bakhumbula ukuba khona kwamadolobhana iKalisz ne-Elbląg eceleni komgwaqo i-Amber, indlela yokuhweba exhumanisa nolwandle lwaseBaltic nolweMedithera oluvela emuva ezikhathini zangaphambi kohambo. Ngaleso sikhathi, amazwe asePoland ayenabantu abangohlobo oluthile lwezizwe zamaCeltic, amaSamartian, amaJalimane, amaBaltic, nezisakazekele emhlabeni.

Namuhla, iPoland iyidemokhrasi yeningi yentando yeningi enomnotho ozinzile, onamandla, oyilungu le-NATO kusukela nge-1999, kanye ne-European Union selokhu i-2004. Ukuqina kwezwe kusanda kugcizelelwa ukuthi ukushona kabuhlungu kukaMongameli Lech Kaczyński kanye namalungu amaningi ePhalamende engozini yendiza e-2010 akuzange kube nomthelela omubi emalini yasePoland noma amathemba ezomnotho. IPoland ibuye yajoyina ngempumelelo iSivumelwano seScgengen semngcele ovulekile oya eJalimane, eLithuania, eCzech Republic naseSlovakia, futhi isethubeni lokwamukela imali yase-Euro ngokuzayo (okwamanje okungavezwanga). Iphupho lasePoland lokuphinda ihlangane neYurophu njengesizwe esizimele ngokuthula nangokuhloniphana komakhelwane ekugcineni selifezekile.

Amaholidi ePoland

emaphandleni

Emaphandleni kulo lonke elasePoland kuyathandeka futhi akunampilo. IPoland inezifunda ezahlukahlukene ezinamathafa amahle, igcwele ngamahlathi amakhulu, amabanga wezintaba, izigodi ezifihliwe, izindawo ezinotshani, amachibi namapulazi amancane asetshenziswayo nawendabuko. Abahambi bangakhetha imisebenzi ethile njengokubuka izinyoni, ukuhamba ngamabhayisekili noma ukugibela amahhashi.

Ngokwezifiso, ungavakashela futhi / noma uhlangabezane namasonto amaningi, iminyuziyamu, amashabhu wokufunda okwenziwa ngobumba kanye nowendabuko, amanxiwa enqaba, izigodlo, izindawo zasemakhaya nezinye eziningi. Uhambo olunqamula emaphandleni asePoland lunikeza ithuba elihle lokujabulela futhi uthathe ulwazi lwendawo mayelana nokuma komhlaba nabantu.

Izifunda

IPoland inikezela ngemhlaba ehlukahlukene, kanye nezindawo zamasiko nezomlando. Izindawo zemvelo zasePoland umuntu angahlukanisa ngamabhande amakhulu ayisihlanu: ugu, izindawo ezisenyakatho yamachibi, amathafa aphakathi nendawo, izindawo eziphakeme eningizimu nasempumalanga nezintaba zaseningizimu.

Izifunda zokuphatha eziyishumi nesithupha zasePoland zibizwa ngokuthi ama-województwa, zivame ukufushaniswa ngokuthi zoj .. Leli gama licishe lilingane negama elithi "isifundazwe" ngesiNgisi. Ezinye izichazamazwi zesiNgisi zisebenzisa igama elithi voivodehip ukuchaza izifundazwe, yize ukusetshenziswa kwegama kunqabile, futhi kungenzeka ukuthi kungaqondakali ndawo zonke ekuqaleni ngezigxobo. Njengakwamanye amazwe amakhulu, izifunda eziningi zinobuntu obuhlukile namasiko.

Izifundazwe zivame ukuba namagama ezifunda ezinomlando, kepha izindawo zazo azihambelani. Isibonelo, i-voileodship yaseSilesian ifaka kuphela ingxenye encane empumalanga yeSilesia, kepha cishe i-40% yomhlaba wayo ayikaze ibe yingxenye yeSilesia. Ngakho-ke, le mephu kanye nokwenziwa kwesifunda kuphela.

I-Greater Poland (IGreater Voivodship, iLubusz)

IGreater Poland iyindawo eyazalelwa kuyo iPoland. Vakashela inhloko-dolobha yokuqala yasePoland, uGniezno, ocebile emlandweni kodwa idolobha lasePoznań elincane futhi elinamandla, hamba nomzila wePiasts 'ukuthola izindawo lapho izinganekwane zihlangana khona nomlando futhi ufunde ngokuzalwa kwePoland. Thola elinye lamakhulu amasonto amancane enziwe ngamapulangwe, noma ujabulele imiqondo, amadolobha amancane namadolobha, amachibi amaningi noma amahlathi.

Isincane iPoland (Izintaba ezingcwele zase-Holy Cross, iVoisodehip yasePoland engaphansi, i-Lublin Voivodehip, i-Subcarpathia)

Ikhaya lezintaba ezibukekayo futhi ngezinye izikhathi zasendle, izimayini zikasawoti ezindala kakhulu ezisebenza emhlabeni, izindawo ezinhle zomhlaba, imihume, izigodlo zomlando kanye namadolobha. Amadolobha amakhulu aphakathi I-Kraków neLublin yizikhungo ezinkulu zedolobha. Inhliziyo yabavakashi basePoland.

I-Central Poland neMasovia (Łódź Voivodship, Masovian Voivodship)

I-Flat, izindawo zasemakhaya ezixakile nezinezindawo ezimbili ezinkulu zamadolobha amakhulu ePoland ezineWarsaw, inhlokodolobha yamanje kanye nesikhungo sezomnotho sezwe, ne-Łódź, idolobha elakhiqiza elaziwa ngokuthi "iManchester yasePoland". Ehoreni elilodwa nje ungasuka ezindaweni ezinamandla zasemadolobheni ezineminyuziyamu eminingi nokuheha amasiko ukuthola ukuthula ezindaweni lapho imvelo ihlangana khona nabantu.

Podlachia

Inhliziyo yasendle yasePoland. Amahlathi wokugcina asemathafeni aseYurophu kanye nemifudlana ebabazekayo (isib. Umfula iBiebrza) onezinhlobo zezinyoni ezivikelwe nezilwane ezinkulu kunazo zonke eYurophu (ama-elks, amabhere, inyathi yaseYurophu) zenza lesi sifunda ngokuya sithakazelisa izivakashi. Lesi futhi yisifundazwe esihluke kakhulu ekuziphatheni okuhle ePoland, sinabantu baseLithuania, ama-Orthodox Belorussia namaSulumane amaTatar ahlala ndawonye - ifa eligugu lePoland-Lithuanian Commonwealth yakudala.

EPomerania naseCuiavia (IPomeranian Voivodship, Kuyavia-Pomerania, West Pomerania)

Inhlokodolobha yasehlobo yePoland isolwandle - azungeze i-500 km yesihlabathi segolide, izindunduma namawa. Thola amahlathi amaningi namachibi amaningi, amadolobha amadala aseHanseatic aseGdańsk noma eToruń, isimo samanje eGdynia, ubuciko be-nouveau ku-Bydgoszcz noma e-Wały Chrobrego Street panoric Szczecin. IFertile Cuiavia ikunikeza phakathi kwezinye zezindawo ezinkulu kunazo zonke ezweni laseCiechocinek, noma izinganekwane zaseKruszwica, inhloko-dolobha yenkosi edumile yasePopiel.

Silesia (I-Silesia esezansi, i-Opole Voivodehip, i-Silesian Voivodehip)

Ingxube enemibala yezindawo ezihlukile zomhlaba. Enye yezifunda ezifudumele kakhulu ePoland enedolobha elithandwa kakhulu, elinamandla leWrocław (inhloko-dolobha engokomlando) nendawo enkulu yedolobha, i-Upper Silesia. Indawo yamagugu asePoland, amaJalimane nawaseCzech anezigodlo eziningi, amakhosi amakhosi namadolobhana. Thola ezinye zezintaba ezindala kakhulu eYurophu ngezindlela zazo ezinhle kakhulu zamadwala.

I-Warmia-Masuria

Amaphaphu aluhlaza wasePoland. Lesi sifunda sinikela ngemvelo engagcwele ndawo egcwele amahlathi, amagquma namachibi. Thola izindawo lapho uCopernicus ebesebenza khona, noma ekamu emaphandleni amahle.

Amadolobha ePoland

Warsaw (Warszawa) - inhlokodolobha nedolobha elikhulu kunawo wonke ePoland, esinye sezikhungo zebhizinisi ezintsha ze-EU; idolobhana elidala, elicishe labhujiswa ngokuphelele phakathi neMpi Yezwe II, lakhiwe kabusha ngesitayela esiphefumlelwe yimidwebo yaseKaraletto. Idolobha elidala laseWarsaw liyisiza samagugu emhlabeni se-UNESCO. Vakashela eminye iminyuziyamu enhle futhi uthole amasiko acebile namagugu eWarsaw nePoland, uchithe isikhathi esithile kumabhayisikobho, kumidlalo yeshashalazi noma emahholo e-opera.

Khokho - (I-Kraków), inhloko-dolobha yesiko lesizwe kanye nenhloko-dolobha yayo yezombusazwe eyingqophamlando ngeNkathi Ephakathi; isikhungo saso sigcwele amasonto amadala, izikhumbuzo, indawo enkulu kunazo zonke emakethe yaseYurophu, futhi muva nje, ama-Pubs nemiklamo yobuciko. Ingenye yamadolobha amakhulu amakhulu hhayi ezweni kuphela kodwa naseCentral Europe futhi. Isikhungo sasedolobheni laso siyindawo ye-UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Łódź - owake waziwa ngezimboni zawo zezindwangu, i- "Polish Manchester" inomgwaqo omude kakhulu wokuhamba eYurophu, i-Ulica Piotrkowska, egcwele ubuciko bokubukeka obuhle kakhulu bekhulu le-19th.

I-Wrocław - idolobha elidala laseSilesian, elaziwa ngeJalimane njengeBreslau, elinomlando omkhulu nesikhungo esihle somlando; ibekwe eziqhingini ze12, inamabhuloho amaningi kunanoma iliphi elinye idolobha laseYurophu ngaphandle kwaseVenice, Amsterdam naseHamburg.

Poznan - idolobha elingumthengisi, elibhekwa njengendawo yokuzalwa yesizwe sasePoland nesonto (kanye neGiezno), i-necropolis yesibili enkulu yamakhosi nababusi basePoland ezweni, bethula ingxubevange yezakhiwo ezivela kuwo wonke ama-epoques.

IGdańsk - kwaziwa ngaphakathi German njengeDanzig, elinye lamadolobha amachweba amahle kakhulu futhi angokomlando e-Central Europe, akhiwa ngobuhlungu ngemuva kweMpi Yezwe II. Ngesikhathi sokukhula kwayo kwakuwumuzi omkhulu kunayo yonke ePoland, kanye nesikhungo sayo esikhulu sokuhweba. Umuzi ungumkhiqizi omkhulu wama-amber jewelry emhlabeni.

I-Szczecin - Idolobha elibaluleke kakhulu laseWestern Pomerania elinetheku elikhulukazi, i-marina, isikhumbuzo, kufaka phakathi i-Pomeranian Dukes 'castle kanye nezakhiwo eziningi ze-Gothic ne-Art Nouveau isitayela, izikhungo zesiko, i-orchestra ye-philharmonic, iminyuziyamu - yedolobha kanye nesifunda kanye nezihloko ezinkulukazi ulwandle - namapaki amadala abanzi angashiyi neyodwa yamakhethini amakhulu kakhulu emhlabeni esetshenziswa njengendawo yokupaka neyomlando yomlando wedolobha.

Bydgoszcz - idolobha elidala lokuhweba elinezakhiwo ezinhle zangekhulu le-19th kanye ne-Mills 'Island enhle emfuleni iBrda, owaziwa ngokuthi yi "Little Berlin".

Lublin - idolobha elikhulu kunawo wonke empumalanga yeVistula, nedolobha elidala eligcinwe kahle elakhiwe ngendlela ejwayelekile yezakhiwo zasePoland, kanye nezinto ezingejwayelekile zohlobo lweLublin Renaissance.

Katowice - isikhungo esikhulu sedolobha elisemuva kwezimboni le-Upper Silesia kanye nehabhu lawo lesiko.

Ezinye izindawo

IBiałowieża National Park iqukethe ihlathi lokugcina lokushisa elipholile laseYurophu.

Auschwitz - ikamu lokuhlushwa lamaNazi elidume kakhulu elaba yisizinda sokuQothulwa Kwesizwe ngamaJuda aseYurophu phakathi neMpi Yezwe II. Indawo Yezwe Yomhlaba Wonke ye-UNESCO.

IBiałowieża National Park - indawo enkulu yamapulangwe yasendulo ewela umngcele neBelarus, edume ngezihlahla zayo ezikhulayo zakudala, izimbungulu, izingulule zaseYurophu, kanye nezimpisi zezimpisi. Indawo Yezwe Yomhlaba Wonke ye-UNESCO.

IBory Tucholskie - isifunda samahlathi amakhulu enyakatho yePoland esigcwele amachibi ahlanzekile, imifula kanye nemithombo yezemvelo. Iparadesi lama-kayaker nemvelo enthousiasts.

I-Kalwaria Zebrzydowska - isigodlo esiseBeskids kusuka e-1600 ngesakhiwo seMannerist kanye nezindawo zesakhiwo seCross. Indawo Yezwe Yomhlaba Wonke ye-UNESCO.

IKarkonoski National Park - ipaki likazwelonke eSudety elizungeze iNtaba i-Śnieżka enezimpophoma ezinhle.

IMalbork - ikhaya laseMalbork Castle, inqaba enhle ebomvu yezitini yaseGothic futhi enkulu kunazo zonke yohlobo lwayo eYurophu. Indawo Yezwe Yomhlaba Wonke ye-UNESCO.

Umzila wePiasts- umzila ongokomlando osuka ePoznań uya e-Inowrocław wethula isifunda sasePoland.

ISłowiński National Park - ipaki likazwelonke eduze nolwandle iBaltic olunezindunduma ezinkulu kunazo zonke eYurophu.

I-Wieliczka Imayini Yesawoti - okuyibhizinisi elidala kakhulu elisekhona emhlabeni wonke, lo mgodi usawoti wawusetshenziswa njalo kusukela ngekhulu le-13th. Indawo Yezwe Yomhlaba Wonke ye-UNESCO.

I-Wielkopolski National Park - ipaki likazwelonke eGreater Poland evikela izilwane zasendle eziLwandle i-Wielkopolskie.

ITatarzański National Park - ipaki likazwelonke eziNtabeni zakwaTatra (Ngaphansi kwePoland) eduze kweRysy Mountain, enamabhere, izimpisi nezinye izilwane.

I-Toruń - idolobha elihle elinokulondolozwa kahle eligudle umfula iVistula. Indawo okwazalelwa kuyo uNicolaus Copernicus kanye nekhaya kuma-gingerbreads amahle kakhulu eYurophu!

I-Zamość - idolobhana eligcinwe kahle kusukela ngonyaka we-Renaissance ngasekupheleni kwe-16th century. Indawo Yezwe Yomhlaba Wonke ye-UNESCO.

IBłędowska Desert - Enye yezindawo ezinkulu kakhulu zesihlabathi eYurophu, phakathi kweD betweenbrowa Górnicza, Klucze neChech ando.

I-Pogoria Lakes - Amachibi amane okufakelwa eDąbrowa Górnicza, indawo eya ehlobo ethandwa ngabantu abadala

I-Będzin - Idolobha laseMediya elinenqaba, izigodlo namagugu amaJuda

I-Dąbrowa Górnicza - Idolobha elidume ngamachibi iPogoria, i-Błędowska Desert kanye nezinye izindawo eziwubala

UKrynica Zdroj - Iqembu lasePoland elaziwa kakhulu futhi elikhulu kunazo zonke

I-West Pomerania nePomerania - Izifunda zamadolobha asogwini njengeKołobrzeg, Świnoujście, Łeba, Ustka noma Dziwnów

Iningi lezindiza ezinkulu zaseYurophu zindiza zivela ePoland zivela futhi. Umthwali kazwelonke wePoland yiLOT Polish Airlines. Kukhona nezindiza eziphansi ezimbalwa ezindiza ePoland.

Ulimi olusemthethweni lwePoland isiPolish, ulimi lwesiSlavic olukhulunywa yizigidi ze-55 emhlabeni jikelele. Izivakashi zakwamanye amazwe kufanele zazi ukuthi cishe yonke imininingwane esemthethweni izovame ukuba sePoland kuphela. Izimpawu zasemgwaqweni, izinkomba, izinkomba zolwazi, njll. Zivame kuphela ngesiPolish, njengoba kunamashejuli nezimemezelo eziteshini zezitimela nezamabhasi (isikhumulo sezindiza kanye neziteshi ezimbalwa ezinkulu zesitimela kubukeka kungafani nalokhu). Uma kukhulunywa ngezimpawu zolwazi kumamnyuziyamu, emasontweni, njll., Izimpawu ezilimini eziningi zivame ukutholakala kuphela ezindaweni ezithandwa izivakashi.

Iningi lentsha nentsha lisazi kahle isiNgisi. Njengoba isiNgisi sifundiswa sisebancane kakhulu (abanye baqala beneminyaka engu-4), amaPole kuphela akhulela emadolobhaneni angawodwa noma emiphakathini ngeke anikezwe izifundo zesiNgisi. Izigodi ezindala, ikakhulukazi ezindaweni zasemakhaya, zizokhuluma kancane noma zingasazi isiNgisi. Kodwa-ke, kungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi bazokhuluma noma French, German or Russian, kufundiswe ezikoleni njengezilimi eziphambili zakwamanye amazwe kuze kube ama1990.

Okufanele ukwenze ePoland

Shaya umkhondo ngomhlahlandlela okhokhelwayo bese ufinyelela ezinye iziqongo zezintaba zeBeskid, Tatra, Sudety noma zeBieszczady. Umhlahlandlela onolwazi uzokhetha izindawo ongahamba kuzo ngokusezingeni lakho lomzimba nezintshisekelo zakho. Noma ngabe uhamba ngezinyawo noma umgibeli osethuthukile, umhlahlandlela ungenza ngezifiso ukuhamba kwakho kufaka ukubukwa kwepaneli noma imikhondo yokhuni engenamikhawulo. Izindawo zokuphumula zasogwini lwasePoland njengeKołobrzeg, i-Ustka, i-Łeba, i-Świnoujście noma iMielno zinikeza ukukhetha okubanzi okukhangayo namakhonsathi bukhoma ngesikhathi sasehlobo. Kukhona nezikhala eziningi ePoland. Okuthandwa kakhulu yilawa: Krynica-Zdrój, uCiechocinek, uBusko-Zdrój, Iwonicz-Zdrój noma Nałęczów. Imidlalo yezamanzi ithola ukuthandwa ngokwengeziwe. Izikhungo ezaziwa kakhulu yizo amachibi iMazury, amachibi okufakelwa eSilesian Voivodehip kanye nemifula njengeBrda, Pilica, Biebrza, Bzura, Czarna Chańcza, Tanew, Krutynia, Czarna / Biała Przemsza kanye neWarta. Kugcwele imihume yasePoland. Abanye babo njengoMroźna, Głęboka, Nietoperzowa, Wierzchowska Górna, uRaj kanye noNiedźwiedzia banokukhanya okwenziwe ngobuciko. Iningi lemigede itholakala eTatra, Sudety, Pieniny, Holy Cross, Jura nase Beskid Mountain noma ePonidzie. Ezinye zazo zivaliwe futhi zivulelwa ukutholakala ngemuva kokuxhumana nabaphathi bendawo noma indawo evikelwe lapho zitholakala khona. Ungathola izincazelo zemihume '(ngesiPolish) namamephu lapha.

Ukuthi udlani futhi uphuze ePoland

Ibonisa inhlonipho ePoland

Utshwala

Akukho emthethweni ukuphuza uphuzo oludakayo noma ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa esidlangalaleni, noma imvamisa kwenziwa ngabantu bendawo, ikakhulukazi emapaki, emabhasini athile, nakweminye imigwaqo yedolobha egcwele. Ukwenza lokho kukubeka engcupheni yenhlawulo encane (kusuka ku-20 kuya ku-100PLN) nokuhlekwa yiCity Guards. Futhi ukulahlekelwa yi-booze yakho.

Akukho emthethweni ukudakwa esidlangalaleni, uma uziphatha kabi - ungathathwa uyiswa endaweni ekhethekile (izba wytrzeźwień) ukugcwala phezulu ... kepha akuyona indawo ethokozisayo kakhulu yokuthola ukuthi ukuphi - uzophathwa njengendawo uphuzo oludakayo futhi ngeke akhishwe kuze kube yilapho esexolile. Futhi kuzodingeka ukhokhe cishe i-240PLN kulokho okuhlangenwe nakho.

Izidakamizwa

Ukutholakala nezidakamizwa zokuzijabulisa akukho emthethweni futhi kungaphansi kwecala lobugebengu. Kodwa-ke, ukutholakala kwe-cannabis yezokwelapha kungokomthetho ngemvume evela eMnyango Wezempilo.

Amatholethi

Iningi lezindlu zangasese zomphakathi seliphendukele ezinhlelweni ezisetshenziselwa ukukhokha ngakunye; lindela ukukhokha i-1-2PLN ukuze usebenzise indlu yangasese yomphakathi, isib. esiteshini sebhasi noma endaweni yokudla okusheshayo (ngaphandle kokuthi uyikhasimende lapho).

Izindlu zangasese zabesifazane ziphawulwa ngombuthano emnyango, futhi amathoyilethi abantu besilisa amakwe unxantathu.

Zonke izindawo zokudlela nemigoqo ziphoqwa ngumthetho ukuthi zibe nezindlu zangasese ngaphakathi (kodwa hhayi zonke ziyahambisana). Akusiwo umkhuba ojwayelekile ukusebenzisa amathoyilethi abo ngaphandle koku-oda (okungenani ikhofi), kepha uma ubuza umuntu okhulumela isikhashana, ubengenandaba nezimo eziningi. Kwesinye isikhathi kufanele uthole ukhiye wendlu yangasese ekhawuntara. Uma kubonakala sengathi kunokuntuleka kwezindlu zangasese zomphakathi ungafuna ukuzama ukuvakashela iMcDonald's (noma enye indawo yokudla esheshayo) nje ukusebenzisa indlu yangasese.

Uma kwenzeka imicimbi emikhulu noma izindawo ezikude, abahleli bahlinzeka ngamathoyilethi okuthiwa ama-toi-toi (asuka kwenye yezinkampani ezisebenzayo). Ukusuka ngaphandle, kunokubukeka okucishe kufane ne- “Porta-Potty” yaseMelika. Zinezindlu zamapulasitiki ezixinekile, ngokuvamile eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, ezinganethezekile, ngokuvamile azihlanzekile kakhulu, futhi azikaze zihlanzeke njalo, futhi akunamanzi noma iphepha. Balindele ukuthi bazonuka kabi.

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Amathiphu Asetshenziswayo Wohambo

Amathiphu Ewusizo Wohambo Qiniseka ukuthi ufunda lezi zeluleko zokuhamba ngaphambi kokuhamba. Ukuhamba kugcwele izinqumo ezinkulu - njengokuthi ngivakashelwa yiliphi izwe, ukuthi uzosebenzisa malini nokuthi uzoyeka nini ukulinda bese ekugcineni wenze leso sinqumo esibaluleke kakhulu sokuthatha amathikithi. Nawa amanye amathiphu alula abushelelezi ngendlela elandelayo […]